Pathogenic fungi in the genus Candida can cause both
superficial and serious systemic disease, and are now recognized as major
agents of hospital-acquired infection.
Candida infections involve the formation of biofilms
on implanted devices such as indwelling catheters or prosthetic heart valves.
Nosocomial infections due to candida are also becoming increasingly important. Early and prompt diagnosis, proper treatment and
prevention of candidemia due to biofilms pose a major challenge for
microbiologists and clinicians worldwide. Biofilm is an aggregate of
microorganism in which cell adhere to each other on a surface. It has been
reported that organism in biofilms are more resistant to antimicrobial agents
than there planktonic (free) form. Formation of a biofilm begins with the attachment of free-floating
microorganisms to a surface.
first adhere to the surface initially through weak, reversible adhesion via
Vander Waal forces. If the colonies are not immediately separated from the
surface, they can anchor themselves more permanently using cell adhesion
structures such as pilli. There are five stages of biofilm development such as
i) initial attachment ii) irreversible
attachment iii) maturation I iv) maturation II v) dispersion.
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