Febrile Seizures – Male Preponderance with Gradual Decline, Marked in Female with Age Advancement

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJCR.2014.04.01.Art001

Authors : Mujahed Baig Shujaat


Objective: To know sex preponderance & Recurrence incidence in case of febrile seizure.
Result: We observed male preponderance in case of febrile seizure & gradual decline in case of male & marked in case of female as age advances.
Conclusion: Febrile seizure had slightly more predilection for male sex, from such data and very short period of follow up, benign nature and continuous prophylaxis of disease can be explained to parents.
Keywords: benign nature, more predilection for male sex, continuous prophylaxis.


[1]. Anne T. Berg, Comment on – diazepam to prevent febrile seizure, N.E.J.M. 1993; 329(27):2033.

[2]. A van Esch et al, Family history and recurrence of febrile seizure, Arch Dis. Child 1994; 70:395-99.

[3]. A Hopkins et al, Febrile convulsions, B.M.J. 1991; 303:634-36.

[4]. Antret E. et al, Double blind trial of diazepam versus placebo for prevention of recurrent febrile seizure., J. Ped. 1990; 117(3); 490-94.

[5]. A Van Esch, Antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in children with febrile seizure., Arch. Ped.Adol.Med.,1995;146(6):632-37.

[6]. Aicardi J., Chevrie J.J., Convulsive status eoilepticus in infants and children Epilepsia, 1970; 11:87797.

[7]. Anandam R., Febrile seizures, Indian Pediatrics, 1986; 23:899-903.

[8]. Allen W.H., The natural history of febrile seizure cited in “Febrile Seizure”, Edited by K.B., Nelson & J.H.Ellenberg, Febrile seizures, Ravan Press,1981:31-39.

[9]. Ajay Kalra et al, Rectal diazepam in convulsion disorder, Indian Pediatrics, 1992; 29:975-78.

[10]. Baraitser M., Relevance of family history of febrile seizure, Arch. Dis. Child, 1983; 58:405-8.

[11]. Brockebank J.J. et al, Influenza A infections in children, Lancet, 1972; 2:497-99.

[12]. Berga A. T. et al, What we have learnt from febrile seizure? Ped. Ann. 1992; 21(6); 355-56, 359-61, 54 Kundsen F. U ; 355-56,359-61.

[13]. Camfield P. et al, What type of epilepsy are preceded by febrile seizure? Dev. Med. Child, Neurol., 1994; 36(10):887-92.

[14]. Chhaparwal et al m mg++ level in serium and C.S.F. in febrile seizures I.J.P. 1971; 38:241-45.

[15]. Cassano P.A. et al, Risk of febrile seizure in childrenin relation to prenatal matemal smoking and alcohol intake.

[16]. Calderon – Gonzaler R., Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant Mex, 1990 Jan 47(1)7-13.

[17]. Charles A. Fischbein, Peter Camfield, Comment on diazepam to prevent febrile seizure. N.E.J.M., 1993; 329(27):2033-34.

[18]. Cary W, Febrile convulsions in infants and children, Med. J. Australiya, 1956’43:254-56

[19]. Consensus Statement, National Institute of Health – Febrile seizure, Ped. 1980;66(6):1009-12.

[20]. Davies K. G. et al, Relationship of hippocampal scelerosis to epilepsy and complex febrile sezure in temporal labectomy patients, Epilepsys Res. 1996;24(2):199-26.

[21]. Deng. C.T., Zulkifli H. I., Azizi B.H, Febrile seizures in Malaysian children- epidemiology and clinical features med. J. Malaysia,1994;49(4):341-7.

[22]. Dannish Medical research 2002.

[23]. Downham M.A et al, Diagnosis and Clinical significance of oarainfluenze virus infection in children, Arch Dis. Child, 1974;49:8-12.

[24]. David A. Bergman et al, The practice parameter- neurodiagnostic evaluation of child with

[25]. Eillen M. Outllette, The child who convulses with fever, P.C.N.A 1974;21:467

[26]. E.M.Brett Epilepsy and Convulsions

[27]. Ejeheri N.A. et al, Etiology of febrile seizures, Annals of Tropical Medicine, 1994:14(3)211-14.

[28]. First simple febrile seizure, Pediatrics (American) 1996;97(5):769-72.

[29]. Freeman J.M, The best medicine for febrile sezure, N.J.M 1992:327:1161-63.

[30]. Franzten F. et al, A gentic study of febrile convulsion, Neurology, 1970:20:909-17.

[31]. Freeman j .m what we have learnt from febrile seizure ? ped.ann, 1992:21(6); 355-56, 359-61.65.knudsen f.u 355-56, 359-61.

[32]. Farewell J.R. et al, Phenobarbitone for fevbrile seizure- effect on intelligence and seizure recurrence N.E.J.M. 1990; 322(6):364-9.

[33]. Green s. M. et al, Can seizures to be the sole manifestation in febrile children, Pediatrics, 1993; 92(4):527-34.

[34]. Haddow M. Keith, Convulsion disorder in children, 1st ed. 1970:37-49

[35]. Hertz D.G. et al, Febrile seizure, P.C.N.A. 1989; 2:375-82.

[36]. Harker P., Primary immunization and febrile convulsion B.M.J. 1977;2:480-85.

[37]. Harvey A.S et al, Febrile seizures and hippocampal sclerosis – frequent and related finding in temporal lobe epilepsy of childhood, Ped. Neurology, 1995:12(3):201-6.

[38]. In: Pediatric Neurology, Edinburgh, Churchill Liningstone, 1997:283, 342- 52

[39]. John H. Menkes, Febrile Convulsions In: Texbook of Child Neurology

[40]. Knudsen F.U, Recurrence Risk After first febrile seizure and effect of short term diazepam prophylaxis, Arch Dis. Child, 1985; 60:1045-49.

[41]. Knudsen F.U., Febrile seizure- Treatment and outcome, Brain Develop., 1996; 18 (6;438-49.

[42]. K Ramkrishanan et al, Causes of fever in febrile convulsion I.J.P. 1982;49;367-369

[43]. Kuturee M. et al, Febrile seizure: Is EEG useful predicator of recurrence, Clinical Ped. (Phila), 1997:136(1):31-36.’

[44]. Kuks J. B., Hippocampal sclerosis in epilepsy and childhood febrile seizures Lancet, 1993;342((8884):1391-94.

[45]. Knudsen F.U., Fectal administration of diazepam in solution in the acute treatment of convulsion in infants and children, Arch Dis, Child, 1979;54:855-57.

[46]. Livingstone S. et al, Febrile convulsion – A clinical study with special reference to heredity and prognosis, J. Pediatrics, 1947; 31:509-12.

[47]. Lindsay J.M., Genetics and epilepsy, A model from critical pathological analysis. Epilepsia, 1971; 12:47-52.

[48]. Lennox W. G. Epilepsy & Related Disorders, Ed. Little, Brown, Boston, 1960:1168-82.

[49]. Leonard Banco, Daniel Veltri, Ability of mothers to subjectively assess the degree of fever in their children A.J.D.C., 1984; 138:976-78.

[50]. Nelson K.B. & Ellenberg J.H. Predicators of epilepsy in children who have experienced febril seizures, N.E.J.M. 1976; 259:1029-33.

[51]. Ounsted C, Some aspect of seizure disorders, Edited by Hall D. and Gairdner D, Recent advances in pediatrics, Churchill, London 1970’102-8.

[52]. P. Singhi K.M. Shriniwas, Journal of pediatrics 2001 38:733-740.

[53]. Peggy Bethune et al, Which child will have febrile seizure, A.J.D.C. 1993;147:935-39.

[54]. P.D. Singhi, K. Jayshree, Febrile seizures – an update, Indian Pediatrics,

[55]. Philadelphia, Lea& Febiger, 1985: 608,654-56

[56]. Peterman M.G., Febrile convulsion, J. Pediatrics, 1952:41:536-40

[57]. Puri V, Febrile seizure, Indian pediatrics, 1991;28:309-16.

[58]. Wadhwa N. et al, An epidemiological study of febrile seizures with special reference to family history and HLA linkage.

[59]. Rosman N.P, Controlled trial of diazepam during febrile illness to prevent recurrence of febrile seizures, N.E.J.M. 1993:329(2):79-84.

[60]. Rutter & Smale, Role of routine investigation in children with first febrile convulsion, Arch Dis. Child. 1977;52:188-91.

[61]. Rosman N.P. Coltant, A controlled trial of diazepam administrated during febrile illness to prevent recurrence, NENGIJ Med. 1993-79 85.

[62]. Robert H.A. Haslam, Febrile seizures, In: Richard E. Behrman et al eds, Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, Prism Books Pvt.1996:1691.

[63]. Robert – Bauma nn MD, e-Medicine, Febrile seizure-2001, Depth of Neurology, University of Kentucky.

[64]. Rober J. Bauman et al, Technical Report sommery – The neurodignostic evaluation of a child with first simple febrile seizure, Pediatrics (American)1996;97:773-75.

[65]. Simpson & georage, C.S.F. acid base status and lactate and pyruvate concentration after short (<30 minute) first febrile seizure, Arch Dis. Child, 1977;52:836-43.

[66]. Spirer et al, Hyoerglycemia and convulsion in children, Arch. Dis. Child, 1974;49:811-13.

[67]. Stephen Ryan, Rudolph Texbook of Pediatrics, McGrawhill 2002;2270-71.

[68]. Thilothammal et al, Risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizure, I.J.P.1977;38:169-73.

[69]. Tusuboi T, Genetic aspect of febrile convulsion, Human Genetics, 1977; 38:169-73. 1995; 32:564-72.

[70]. Thomas W. Farmer, Febrile seizure Pediatric Neurology, 3rd ed, 1983; 132-34.

[71]. Uhari M. et al, Effect of acetaminophen an flow dose diazepam in prevention of recurrent febrile seizure. J.Ped. 1995; 126(6):991-95.

[72]. Van staijvenberg M. et al, Controlled trials of ibuproten syp. During fever to prevent recurrence Peadritics 1998 102(s).

[73]. Veena Kalra, Management of febrile convulsion, I.J.P, 1985; 52:177-78.

[74]. Wegman M.E., Factors influencing relation between convulsion and hyperthermia, J. Pediatrics, 1970;14:190-202.

[75]. Wallace S.J. Zeally H, Neurological, Electroencephalographic and virological findings in febrile convulsion., Arch Dis. Child,1970;45:611-23.

[76]. Wolf S.M. et al, A controlled prospective study, Pediatrics, 1977; 59(3):59(3):378-85.

[77]. Wallace s. Simith J.A., Successful prophylaxis against febrile convulsion with valproate B.M.J. 1980;28:253-56.