laboratory work emphasize on the characterization of designed and constructed grating
spectrometer . This was done by measuring the diffraction efficiency of the fabricated
grating. The fabricated grating is a binary grating with height 650 nm, period
880 nm and fill factor 0.40 nm. The light source used were laser sources and
halogen lamp with wavelength range 532 nm and 473 nm. CCD line camera is used
as a detector having 3648 pixels with each pixel having a size of 8μm. The diffraction
efficiencies and filter transmittance measured with the Perkin Lambda 18 spectrophotometer
are compared with the constructed spectrometer. The characterization is done by
measuring the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the detected laser line peaks
by the constructed spectrometer.
 J. M. Hollas, Modern Spectroscopy, 4 ed. (John Wiley and sons
Limited, West Sussex, 2004).
 R. S. Winsor, J. W. Mackenty, M. Stiavelli, M. A. Greenhouse,
J. E. Mentzell, R. G. ohi IV, and R. F. Green, “Optical design for an infrared
imaging multi-object spectrometer(IRMOS),” PROC-SPIE 4092, 102–108 (2000).
 C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New
 U. Platt and J. Stutz, Differential Optical Absorption
Spectroscopy (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008).
 http:www.oceanoptics.com/products/benchoptics ge.asp,
 H. Tuovinen, “Characterization of designed and constructed
optical system,” University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (2015).
 bwtek, http://bwtek.com/spectrometer-part-5-spectral-resolution/