Table of Contents - Issue
Volume 2 | Issue 1
In this issue, we are going to see the molecular mechanisms involved in tissues to harmful stimuli, Characteristic analysis of Caralluma attenuata extract, Sacral hiatus, study on local anesthetic eutectic mixture in New Zealand white rabbits, Neuroprotective Epigenetic and DNA Damage repairing molecular mechanisms and also about Antifungal, contraceptive, anti-cancer, mosquito repellent properties of Azadirachtaindica.
ISSUE DOI: 10.21522./TIJBMS.2016.02.01[Download Full Issue]
Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Inflammatory Cascade: A ReviewAuthor: Jagan NadipellyDOI: 10.21522./TIJBMS.2016.02.01.Art001
Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Inflammatory Cascade: A Review
Inflammation participates importantly in host defenses against infectious agents and injury, but it also contributes to the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases. Many molecular mechanisms are involved in the process of inflammation such as Prostaglandins, Platelet activating factors, Leukotrienes, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin one beta (IL1β), nuclear factor kappa beta (NFΚβ) and oxidative stress. These inflammatory molecules work together in concert to produce inflammation. The therapeutic targets for resolving inflammation are numerous because the process of inflammation is multifaceted. Inflammatory mediators, free radical activity and oxidative stress have been found to be attractive anti-inflammatory targets. The role of these components must be understood in order to effectively investigate inflammatory mediators as drug targets. This review mainly aims to summarise our current understanding of the molecular basis of inflammation and therapeutic implications to prevent this phenomenal activity.
Keywords: Inflammation, Bradykinin, Adenosine triphosphate, Tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide synthase, Prostaglandins, nuclear factor kappa beta.
Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Inflammatory Cascade: A Review
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Phytochemical Analysis and Partial Characterization Caralluma Attenuata Extract by TLCAuthor: A. Chandra MohanDOI: 10.21522./TIJBMS.2016.02.01.Art002
Phytochemical Analysis and Partial Characterization Caralluma Attenuata Extract by TLC
Medicinal and natural herbal plant products are traditionally used from long time in many countries. The current work was to evaluate the flavonoid rich fraction in Caralluma attenuate and other phytochemical analysis of stem of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids and tannin content in methanol extracts of stem then they were determined spectrometrically. The present study provided, a detailed report on the isolation and characterization of Thin Layer Chromatography from stem of Caralluma attenuate. The methanol extract were used for various biological properties and in vivo assays which is used discovering new drugs.
Keywords: Caralluma attenuata, phytochemical screening, medicinal uses and TLC.
Phytochemical Analysis and Partial Characterization Caralluma Attenuata Extract by TLC
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Sacral Hiatus - A Morphometric and Anatomical StudyAuthor: Jyothinath KothapalliDOI: 10.21522./TIJBMS.2016.02.01.Art003
Sacral Hiatus - A Morphometric and Anatomical Study
To accurate performance of epidural anaesthesia and analgesia it is important to know the variations of sacral hiatus in dry bone. The present observational study conducted on one hundred dry human sacra to evaluate the anatomical and morphometric variations of sacral hiatus. The most common shape of sacral hiatus was inverted ‘U’ and ‘V’ respectively. Apex of sacral hiatus present at 3rd sacral segment in 78% sacra and base is at fifth sacral segment in 89% sacra. The length of sacral hiatus is between 11-20 mm in majority sacra, anteroposterior diameter is 4-6 mm in 63% sacra and transverse diameter is 11-15 mm in of sacral hiatus. Anatomical variations in sacral hiatus can leads to caudal epidural anaesthesia failure and procedure related complications. Understanding these variations may improve success of caudal epidural anaesthesia and decrease incidence of complications.
Keywords: Sacral hiatus, caudal epidural anaesthesia, Morphometry.
Sacral Hiatus - A Morphometric and Anatomical Study
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Study of Onset and Duration of Action of Local Anesthetic Eutectic Mixture in New Zealand White RabbitsAuthor: Vijaykumar SDOI: 10.21522./TIJBMS.2016.02.01.Art004
Study of Onset and Duration of Action of Local Anesthetic Eutectic Mixture in New Zealand White Rabbits
The present study was designed to investigate the local anesthetic activity of EMLA cream on intact skin of hind limbs of New Zealand white rabbits by employing a novel method “Pedaling reflex in rabbits”. Five different doses of drug ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mg was selected and applied to the ventral surface of the hind feet of both limbs. Uniform pressure was applied on anesthetized patches with help of a blunted probe. Six pricks were applied at different points on anesthetized patches and loss of pedaling reflex (leg retraction) followed by application of stimulus was considered as sign of anesthesia. A significant reduction in onset of anesthesia and a dose dependent increase in duration of anesthesia were recorded in the present study. The onset and duration of action for local anesthetic EMLA cream depends on dosage and contact time of drug on intact skin.
Keywords: White rabbit, EMLA cream
Study of Onset and Duration of Action of Local Anesthetic Eutectic Mixture in New Zealand White Rabbits
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Neuroprotective Epigenetic and DNA Damage Repairing Molecular Mechanisms of L-Carnitine and its Congeners against Aging and Age-Related Neurodegenerative DiseasesAuthor: Kumar PonnusamDOI: 10.21522./TIJBMS.2016.02.01.Art005
Neuroprotective Epigenetic and DNA Damage Repairing Molecular Mechanisms of L-Carnitine and its Congeners against Aging and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases
Aging is n ubiquitous biological phenomena characterized by ever-increasing susceptibility to diseases due to increased oxidative stress (OS) and an ultimate severe non-repairable membrane molecular and mitochondrial damages coupled with energy (ATP) depletion. L-Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-triethyl amino butyrate) and its congeners plays an essential role in mitochondrial ATP synthesis while being a powerful anti-inflammatory antioxidant and an organic, non-ionic bi-phasic osmolytes. L-carnitine exerts antimutagenic and genome stabilizing effects by increasing mitochondrial metabolism, anneals DNA-strand breaks and enhances genome stability by modulating histones and DNA-repairing enzymes. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme and normally functions in DNA damage repair mechanism acts as a double-edged sword, which anneals mild repairable DNA damages, but extensive PARP-1 activation can promote cell death through processes involving energy depletion in severe OS. It has been reported that, severe oxidative stress-mediated extensive non-repairable DNA damage can over-activate PARP-1 and consumes enormous NAD+ and consequently ATP, culminating in cell dysfunction or necrosis by autocatalysis of PARP-1 and caspases. The DNA damage associated with OS known to activate DNA repair proteins, including PARP-1, an important biomarker of brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This study delineates the neuroprotective epigenetic and DNA-repairing molecular mechanisms of the iron-chelating anti-inflammatory genome stabilizing antioxidant ergogenic aid L-Carnitine and its congeners against selected degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Multiple sclerosis (MS).
Keywords: Aging, Neurodegenerative diseases, Oxidative stress, DNA damage, Poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerse-1, Caspase, ATP, L-Carnitine, Iron-Chelating Anti-inflammatory Antioxidants.
Neuroprotective Epigenetic and DNA Damage Repairing Molecular Mechanisms of L-Carnitine and its Congeners against Aging and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases
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Antifungal, Contraceptive, Anti-Cancer, Mosquito Repellent Properties of Azadirachta Indica: A reviewAuthor: Niharika AnandDOI: 10.21522./TIJBMS.2016.02.01.Art006
Antifungal, Contraceptive, Anti-Cancer, Mosquito Repellent Properties of Azadirachta Indica: A review
Azadirachta indica, or more commonly known as Neem, is noted for a variety of medicinal properties. Large numbers of unique phytochemical constituents have been purified from this plant that are being used effectively as anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Neem leaf is an essential ingredient of many Ayurveda medicines. Gedunin and nimbidol are found in the leaves of neem, are shown powerful antifungal activity in various fungal infections in humans. Traditional forms of medicine practiced for centuries in Africa and Asia has been reported that, the leaf extract of Azardica indica possess wound healing activity when applied over external wound and it also taken internally to boost immunity and improve overall health. Several parts of this plant are used in many ailments such as intestinal pain, diabetics, fever, hepatitis, etc. Although the effects of neem are widely known and appreciated, thus far steps haven’t been taken to study its individual properties, and prove through research the extent of its prowess. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the some of the biological activity of the neem includes antifungal, contraceptive and anti-cancer and mosquito repellent properties.
Keywords: Azardica indica, antifungal, contraceptive, anti-cancer, P.ovale, mosquito repellent.
Antifungal, Contraceptive, Anti-Cancer, Mosquito Repellent Properties of Azadirachta Indica: A review
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