Literature review of Triple-negative breast cancer metastasis to lungs and its management through Chemotherapy

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DOI: 10.21522/TIJCR.2014.03.01.Art017

Authors : Kavita Gupta


The present study is a review of literature that covers an aspect of role of BRCA1 gene mutation in breast cancer metastasis, risk of recurrence influenced by stage at initial presentation, the underlying biology of the tumor, time of relapse after diagnosis of the primary tumor, reasons for metastasis, various biological markers discovered up till date, discussion of several mathematical models, with a focus on how they have been used to predict the initiation time of metastatic growth, and standard choice of treatment best suited for triple negative breast cancer metastasis.

Breast cancer starts as a local disease, but it could metastasize to the lymph nodes and distant organs. As by definition, Metastatic breast cancer, also known as Advanced or Stage IV breast cancer, is the stage in breast cancer progression in which malignant cells from the primary tumor successfully create new tumors in distant organs.  According to the Research studies, women who have BRCA1 mutations are at higher risk for triple negative breast cancer. The prognosis of women with triple negative breast cancers (ER-negative, PR-negative and HER2-neu –negative) is poor as compared to women with other subtypes of breast cancer. TNBC relapses more frequently than hormone receptor-positive subtypes and is often associated with poor outcomes.

Patients and oncologists always have a dilemma on how to cope with this aggressive disease. For patients, the diagnosis of breast cancer is fearsome; so when they know additionally that they suffer from TNBC—a subtype with poor outcomes—this situation is often more stressful. TNBC patients have a unique pattern of relapse, which occurs mostly in the first 3 years following diagnosis. Although metastatic breast cancer is not curable, meaningful improvements in survival have been seen, coincident with the introduction of newer systemic therapies.

Keywords: TNBC (Triple Negative Breast Cancer), Metastasis, tumor, ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-neu negative, BRCA1 mutations, Overall Survival, Lungs, Mathematical Models, Recurrence, Chemokines, Chemotherapy.


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