ITP scientifically known as ‘Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura’ is characterized as an uncommon benign acquired autoimmune hematologic disorder of unknown cause or etiology and normal bone marrow with acute condition in children and a chronic condition in adults which is often accompanied by symptoms such as, occasional Petechiae, Ecchymoses, excessive bleeding episodes in the form of Mucosal bleeding, spontaneous nosebleeds, bleeding from the gums, blood in the urine, blood in the stool, abnormally heavy menstruation, prolonged bleeding from cuts, and profused bleeding during surgery, with a platelet count of less than 100 × 109/L (100,000/μL). Chronic ITP was observed to be a rare disorder found to be associated with a loss of tolerance to platelet antigens and a phenotype of accelerated platelet destruction and impaired platelet production. According to the recent studies, prevalence of 1 in 5.000 was estimated with prevalence in adults and children ranging from 9.6 to 189 per 100 000 person ultimately leading ITP to be an orphan disease. Moreover, the increased risk of death was observed largely concentrated in patients 60 years of age or older. Mortality rate was observed to be very low with most of the outpatients being treated. ITP could present either alone (primary) or in the setting of other conditions (secondary) such as infections or altered immune states. This chapter of reviewed article highlighted the aspects of current understanding of definition of ITP, Pathophysiology of ITP, Diagnosis of ITP with considerable clues from genetic studies, treatment of Primary ITP with immunomodulatory mechanisms of action in ITP therapies (Evidence-based from clinical trials.gov) along with the Quality-of-Life of the ITP patients.
Keywords: ‘Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)’; ‘Mortality’; ‘Hemorrhage’; ‘Thrombocytopenia,’ ‘Platelet Count,’ ‘Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura,’ ‘Complete Blood Count,’ ‘Bone Marrow Examination,’ ‘Reticulocyte Count,’ ‘Antinuclear Antibody Test,’ ‘Pathophysiology,’ ‘Treatment,’ ‘Refractory disease,’ ‘Platelet response,’ ‘Thrombosis’.