Department of Health (DOH) the regulator of Abu Dhabi region in UAE launched
Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) on March 21, 2016. Despite this drive for
last 3 years, there has been no noticeable changes or initiatives in private health
sector. There are different factors that affect the breastfeeding behaviors that
may result in sluggish response from private healthcare sector. The purpose of this
article is to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can guide researches
investigating the factors affecting breastfeeding behavior. This study will analyze
different theories related to breastfeeding to identify common theoretical constructs
that constitutes the breastfeeding behavior. Prominent constructs identified will
be used to develop a conceptual framework. A methodical survey of existing literatures
is reviewed to delineate the factors affecting breastfeeding. The factors are then
categorized using the concept of bioecological systems theory to formulate the conceptual
model. The conceptual model assumes the breastfeeding behavior as the resultant
of interaction between the person, behavior and environment. Breastfeeding is the
end behavior, while personal factors is a combination of maternal and infant synergies.
Environmental factors are categorized as micro and marco-environmental factors based
on their level of influences.
Keywords: breastfeeding, breastfeeding
factors, breastfeeding practice, breastfeeding theories.
O., and Salih, A, 2019, Determinants of the early initiation of breastfeeding in
the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International
breastfeeding journal, 14(13). doi.org/10.1186/s13006-019-0207-z.
. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M., 1980, Understanding
attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
. Ajzen, I., 2012, The theory of planned behavior.
Handbook of theories of social psychology.
. Ajzen, I.,1991, The theory of planned behavior.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision
Processes, 50(2). p.179-211. /doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.
. Al Tajir, G.K., Sulieman, H., Badrinath, P., 2006,
Intragroup differences in risk factors for breastfeeding outcomes in a multicultural
community. J Hum Lactation; 22:39-47.
. Al-Mutairi, N. F., Al-Omran, Y. A., and Parameaswari,
P. J., 2017, Breastfeeding practice and knowledge among women attending primary
health-care enters in Riyadh. Journal of family
medicine and primary care. April to June; 6(920), 392-398, doi: 10.4103/jfmpc_243_17.
. Bandura, A., 2012, Social cognitive theory. In
P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology
(pp. 349-373). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications Ltd. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446249215.n18.
. Bronfenbrenner, Urie, and Pamela A. Morris, 2006,
“The bioecological model of human development.” Handbook of Child Psychology.
. Eidelman, A.I., Schanler, R.J., Johnston, M.,
Landers, S., Noble, L., Szucs, K., Viehmann, L., 2012, Breastfeeding and the use
of human milk. Pediatrics, 129, doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3552.
. Ettekal, Andrea & Mahoney, Joseph. 2017, Ecological
Systems Theory. 10.4135/9781483385198.n94.
. Hector, King, and Webb, 2005, Factors affecting
breastfeeding practices. Applying a conceptual
framework. New South Wales public health bulletin. 16. 52-5. 10.1071/NB05013.
. McLennan, J. D., 2001, Early termination of breast-feeding
in periurban Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: mothers’community perceptions and
personal practices. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2001; 9(6): 362–367.
. Radwan, H., 2013, Patterns and determinants of
breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices of Emirati mother in the United
Arab Emirates. BMC Public Health, 13:
. Taha, Z., 2017, Trends of Breastfeeding in the
United Arab Emirates (UAE). Knowledge E.
doi: 10.18502/ajne. v2i3.1356.
. Taha, Z., Garemo, M., & Nanda, J., 2018, Patterns
of breastfeeding practices among infants and young children in Abu Dhabi, United
Arab Emirates. International breastfeeding
journal, 13, 48. doi:10.1186/s13006-018-0192-7.