The Interactive Impact Between Empowerment and Women Empowerment Programs in Selected Local Government Areas in Ekiti State

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJMG.2015.07.02.Art005

Authors : Makinde, Christiana Omone Bose, Arogundade Toluwanimi Oreoluwa, Adeoye, Ayodele, Ilesanmi Itunnu, Banjo oluwafikayomi


The Nigerian Society is purely Patriarchy in Nature, and since this patriarchal nature is evident in traditionally social, cultural, economic, and religious realms or settings, there is a need for Women's Empowerment that directly influences these sectors. This Study assessed Women's Empowerment programs in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A descriptive Survey design was adopted. Sample size of 500 respondents were selected from 10 local government areas in the State. The Analysis was conducted using Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 23. The set null hypotheses were tested at a 0.05 level of significance. The set null hypotheses for Psychological Empowerment (B = 0.399, t = 22.853; P< 0.05), Social Empowerment (B = 0.318, t = 15.160, P<0.05), Economic Empowerment (B = 0.305, t=`11.955 P<0.05) and Political Empowerment (B=0.732, t= 21.221, P<0.05). The findings revealed that Social, Economical, Political, and psychological empowerment has significant contributions to Women's Empowerment programs in Ekiti State. The study recommended that Social Empowerment, Economic Empowerment, Psychological Empowerment, and Political Empowerment are key contributors to Women's Empowerment.


[1] Renu J., and Renu, D. (2015). Corporate social responsibility and the empowerment of women: An Indian perspective. Social Responsibility Journal. 3(4):40–48. Corsun DL, Enz CA. Predicting Psychological Empowerment Among Service Workers: The Effect of Support-Based Relationships. Human Relations. 52(2),205–224.

[2] Akhter R, and Ward KB. (2019). Globalization and gender equality: A critical analysis of women’s empowerment in the Global Economy. 13:141-73.

[3] Kabeer N. (2015). Gender equality and women’s empowerment: A critical analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal 1., Gender & Development, 13(1):13-24.

[4] Dasarathi, B. (2016). Empowerment of Indian Women a Challenges for 21st century. In Women Empowerment Principle. 18 (2), 1 – 4.

[5] Mayoux L, Hartl M. (2019) Microfinance and women’s empowerment: Virtuous spirals. Gender and Rural Microfinance: Reaching and Empowering Women. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

[6] Mohak, R. (2014). Schemes and Strategies for Women Empowerment in India. 2014;1– 12.

[7] UNIFEM (2013). Progress of the World Report. Retrieved April 2015 from

[8] Tremblay, M., and Pelletier, R. (2015). More Feminists or More Women? Descriptive and Substantive Representations of Women in the 2014 Canadian Federal Elections. International Political Science Review, (21)4, 381-405.

[9] Nussbaum, M. (2014). Sex, laws and inequality: What India can teach the United States. Daedalus, 131(1), 95-106.

[10] Lama, S. T. (2001). The Hindu goddess and women’s political representation in South Asia: Symbolic resource or feminine mystique. International Review of Sociology, 11(1), 5-20.

[11] Banerjee, S. (2013). Gender and Nationalism: The masculinzation of hinduism and female political participation in India. Women’s Studies International Forum, 26(2), 167-179.

[12] Bird, K. (2013). The Effects of Gender Parity in Elections: The French Case. In: Gaffney J. (ed.), The French Presidential and Legislative Elections of 2014. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. empowerment, and rights(pp.128-138). Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

[13] Peterson, S., and Runyan, A. (2015). Global Gender Issues: Dilemmas in World Politics. Boulder Westview Press.

[14] Chaudhuri, S., and Heller, P. (2012). The plasticity of participation: evidence from a participatory governance experiment. Paper presented at the Workshop on “Measuring Empowerment: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives” held at the World Bank in Washington, DC on February 4th and 5th. Retrieved in April 2015 from

[15] Okemakinde, T. (2014). Women Education: Implications for National Development in Nigeria. European Journal of Globalization and Development Research. 9 (1) 553-564.

[16] Agu, S. (2014). Gender Equality, Education and Women Empowerment: The Nigerian Challenge. Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development, 8; 1:66-72.

[17] Rodgers, Y. M. (2017). Women’s Empowerment in the Labor Market: Why Is it Smart Economics? Rutgers University, Nidhiya Menon, Brandeis University.

[18] Banerjee, A., Dean, K., and Zinman, J. (2015). “Six Randomized Evaluations of Microcredit: Introduction and Further Steps,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 7(1): 1-21.

[19] Lastarria-Cornhiel, S. (2006). “Feminization of Agriculture: Trends and Driving Forces,” Background Paper for the World Development Report, 2008. Washington DC: World Bank.

[20] Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, and International Labour Organization (FAO/IFAD/ILO). 2010. Gender Dimensions of Agricultural and Rural Employment: Differentiated Pathways Out of Poverty: Status, Trends, and Gaps. Rome: FAO.

[21] Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2016. Gender and Land Rights Database. Rome: FAO.

[22] Hossain, N. (2012) ‘Security and the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment: Finding from a Thematic Synthesis of the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment Research’. IDS Working Paper No. 406. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies.

[23] Kabeer, N. (2011) ‘Between Affiliation and Autonomy: Navigating Pathways of Women’s Empowerment and Gender Justice in Rural Bangladesh’, Development and Change 42.2: 499–528.