Knowledge Attitude and Practice Towards Pre-M Aritial/Prenatal Genetic Testing among Young People (15-45) Years of Age in Sapele Local Government Area, Delta State. Nigeria

Download Article

Authors : Iweriebor Onoiribholo Bridget


This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice toward premarital/prenatal genetic testing among young people of 15-45years of age in Sapele Local Government Area in Delta State Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used. The population of the study consisted of the members of four major communities (Amukpe, Amuogoddo, Okirighwe and Uguanja). The respondents were selected by simple random sampling method. The research instrument was a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 50 respondents were selected. A total 50 questionnaire were distributed and same retrieved. The objectives of the study were to determine level of knowledge of premarital/prenatal genetic testing among young people, to assess the level of practice and to identify factors influencing their attitude towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing. The rational is to enhance young people’s knowledge about premarital/prenatal genetic testing, encourage premarital/prenatal genetic screening and also reduces some of the factors influencing attitudes of young people towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing. Data collected were analyzed using frequency and percentages and were presented using tables and graphs. The study shows that 30% of the respondent level of knowledge of premarital/premarital genetic testing is of high level, 70% of the respondents have low level of knowledge and the source of information was through media (20%), health personnel (40%), friends (6%) etc. The study also showed that the level of practice is low as 80% of the respondent does not practice premarital/prenatal genetic testing, only 20% practiced it. it also shows that there are some factors influencing their attitudes towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing which include lack of knowledge (66%), non affordability (20%), non Accessibility (55) and also as a result of non availabilities of centers (15%) where premarital/prenatal genetic testing should be carried out. In conclusion, lack of basic knowledge, negative attitude and practice has a negative impact on the young people, their family, their community and the society as a whole. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made by government, parents, and health personnel to improve knowledge, attitude and practice towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing thereby reducing the incidence rate of having children with genetic defect.


1.      Abby Lippman (2001): The View from de Womb, Genetics: Ethics to Order Remain a Pipedream. Newsletter. 8 November 2003. p.64.

2.      Abuelo, D. N., Hopmann, M. R., Barsel-Bowers, G. & Goldstein, A. (2001). Anxiety in Women with Low Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening Results. Prenatal Diagnosis. 11, 381-385.

3.      Armitage, P., & Colton, T. (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Biostatistics Volume 5. Boston: John Wiley & Sons.

4.      Bacon, A.L (2002): Prevention of the first Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects by Periconceptual Vitamin Supplementation. The New England Journal of Medicine, 119, 327.

5.      Bahado-Singlt R, Ozgur. D., Oz. U. Tan, A. Hunter. D. Copel, J., & Mahoney, M. J. (2008). An Alternative for Women initially Declining Genetic Amniocentesis: Individual Down Syndrome Odds on the basis of Maternal Age and Multiple Ltitrasonographic Markers. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gyhecology. 179: 5 14-9.

6.      Beeson, J. & Golbus, 0 (2009): Who’s for Amniocentesis? The Politics of Prenatal Screening. In H. Homans (ed,) The Sexual Politics of Reproduction. London: Gower. (pp. 96-177).

7.      Bogart, M. H., Pandian. M. R. Jones O. W. (2007). Abnormal Maternal Serum Chorionic Gconadotrophin: Levels in Pregnancies with fetal Chromosome Abnormalities. Prenatal Diagnosis. 7, 1 97-200.

8.      Boss, B.K (2012): Elevated Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (MSAFP): Interpretation and Follow-up. In R. M. Pitkin. Jr. & J. R. Scott (eds), Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 31. 293-205.

9.      Caccia J.H (2011) Screening of Maternal Serum for Fetal Down’s Syndrome in the First Trimester. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 955-961.

10.  Croyle, R. T. (2005). Introduction. In R.T. Croyle (ed). Psychosocial Effects of Screening for Disease Prevention and Detection. (pp. 3-7).

11.  Dixson, H (2011) Combining Inhibin A with Existing Second-Trimester Markers in Maternal Serum Screening for Down’s Syndrome. Prenatal Diagnosis, 16: 1095-1 100.

12.  Dorland’s (2008) Psychosocial Aspects of Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis. In T. Marteau and M. Richards (eds) The Troubled Helix: Social and Psychological Implications Of The New Human Genetics. New York: Cambridge. (pp.140-163).

13.  Dweyer, J. M., (2013). Scientific Criteria for adopting Health Screening Measures. Pediatric Nursing. May/June. 195-197.

14.  Eriferi M. T. (2011), Knowledge and practice of prenatal genetic testing among married couple.(unpublished work).

15.  Evaus. MI. Bottoms. S.F., Carlucci. T. Grant, J., Belsky. R. L., Solyom, A. E., Quigg, M. H., & Laferla. J. (200). Determinants of Altered Anxiety after Abnormal Maternal Serum Fetoprotein Screening. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 159: 1501-4.

16.  EuroGentest (2014)

17.  Filly, R. A. (2010). Obstetrical Sonoaraphy: The Best way to Terrif, a Pregnant Woman. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 19. 1-5.

18.  Fitzgerald, J., Streets, K. & Priest. J. (2012). Maternal Serum Screening Risk for Down Syndrome is Considered Positive if a Triple-Maker-Derived Risk Exceeds the Age-Specific Risk: Use of this Definition for Women Aged 35 and over. Prenatal Diagnosis. 13,2. 152-153.

19.  Fletcher, B. (2003) Low Second Trimester Maternal Serum Unconjugated Oestriol in Pregnancies with Down syndrome. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 95, 330-333.

20.  Genes on the Line (2007),

21.  Genes on the Line (

22.  Genes on the Line ( march 2012).

23.  Genes on the Line ( 2012).

24.  Genes on the Line (, retrieved 14th October 2012).

25.  Genetic Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Centro de Education Medical Investigations Clinics CEMIC, Institutor Universities IUC. Buenos Aires, Argentina.

26.  Green, J.M. (2000). Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis: Some Psychological and Social 1ssue. British Journal of Obstetris and Gynecolohy, 97. 1074-(70).

27.  Gucudian (2011): Congenital Anterior Abdominal wall Defects in the North of England, 2006-2006: Occurrence and Outcome. Prenatal Diagnosis, 19(7): 662-8.

28.  Jeffiey Botkin (2000) Medical Progress. Congenital Malformations: Etiologic factors and their Role in Prevention. Part I. New England Journal of Medicine. 308 (8): 424-1.

29.  Karl Marx (2009) Medical Progress. Congenital Malformations: Etiologic factors and their Role in Prevention. Part II. New England Journal of Medicine. 308(9): 491-7.

30.  Keena D., Basso V., Goldkrand P. & Butler S. 2001): The Genetic Screening of Target Populations. In Backdoor to Eugenics. New York: Routledge.

31.  Lapham, E. Virginia; Kozma, Chahila: Weiss, Joan 0. Genetic Discrimination. Perspectives of Consumers Science Vol 274. 24, Oct 2006. pp. 621-624.

32.  Main, D. M., & Mennuti, M.T.(2006). Neural Tube Defects: Issues in Prenatal Diagnosis and Counseling. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 67, 1-16.

33.  Mannheim, A (2003). Prenatal Detection and Diagnosis. in Clinical Genetics in Nursing Practice. (pp. 271-293’). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

34.  Marteeau, T. M. (2009). Psychological Costs of Screening. British Medical Journal, 299, 527.

35.  Marteau, T.M., Johnston, M. Kidd J., Michie, S. Cook. R Slack J. & Shw, RV. (2002). Psychological Models in Predicting Uptake of Prenatal Screening. Psychology and Health. 6, 1 3-22.

36.  Palomaki, G. E. (2006). Collaborative Study of Down Syndrome Screening using Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein and Maternal Age. The Lancet, December 10-27. 1460.

37.  Palomaki, G. E., Williams, J. & Haddow. J. E.(2009). New England Regional Genetics Group Prenatal Collaborative Study of Down Syndrome Screening: Combining Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Measurements and Age to Screen for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women Under Age 35. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 160; 578-581.

38.  Phipps and Zinn (2006) Psychological Consequences for Parents of False Negative Results on Prenatal Screening for Down’s syndrome: Retrospective interview Study. British Medical Journal, 320: 407-412.

39.  Rankin, Dillon, E., & Wright, L. (2009). Prenatal Diagnosis in the 2000s. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 23; 506-5 15.

40.  Rothman D. (2006): Alpha-Fetoprotein in the Antenatal Diagnosis of Anencephaly and Spina Bifida. Lancet 2. 770, 197-200.

41.  Shaw, G (2004). Sensitivity arid specificity of Ultrasound for the Detection of Neural Tube and Ventral Wall Defects Population. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4. 562-566.

42.  Simpson, O. (2006). Fetal Nuchal Translucency: Ultrasound Screening for Chromosomal Defects in the First Trimester of Pregnancy. British Medical Journal, 304, 867-869.

43.  Spencer, P and Cox D. (2008): Prenatal Screening for Down Syndrome with the use of Maternal Serum Markers. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 588-593.