Prevalence of Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 Gene Deletions in Plasmodium Falciparum Isolates and their Performance of Hrp2 Based Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Three Districts of Ghana

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DOI: 10.21522/TIJAR.2014.08.03.Art003

Authors : Aquel Rene Lopez, Edith Bortier, Charles Brown

Abstract:

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (MRDTs) are important for malaria disease management. However, the performance of the RDTs is affected when the targeted antigens in the parasite have a variation or are altogether absent. The most common parasite target antigen in RDTs, Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), has been reported to be absent in some P. falciparum parasites. 371 patient samples, from Akuapem North (58.5%), Atiwa East (21.3%), and from New Juaben (20.2%), were used in the study. PCR provided the highest number, 14.8% (55/371), of positive detections for falciparum infections. Microscopy detected parasites in 20/261 (7.7%) samples, and the minimum parasite density by microscopy was 430 parasites/┬ÁL. Out of the 371 samples, 27 (7.3%) were positive by RDT. The highest RDT positivity rate, 13.3% (10/75), was observed at New Juaben. False-negative RDT results were obtained in 43/55 (78.2%) of the negative branded RDT kits. Only two microscopies positive sample were RDT positive. Using 18SrDNA PCR, 55 (14.8%) samples were positive for P. falciparum. In Akuapem North, 79.2 % (19/24) of the PCR positive samples had P. falciparum parasites that lacked exon 2 of PFHRP2. An overall RDT positivity rate of 7.3% (27/371) and false-negative rate of 78.2% (43/55) were observed for the study sites. Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations with deletions of the PFHRP2 and PFHRP3 genes are present in Ghana. There is an urgent need to investigate the prevalence and geographic distribution of these parasites.

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