Assessment of the Capacity of Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors to Provide Contraceptive Services to Adolescents in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJAR.2014.09.03.Art001

Authors : Muhamma Murtala Ibrahim


The contraceptive Prevalence Rate among adolescents has remained extremely low in Kaduna State due to limited access to health facilities with youth-friendly services. Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors (PPMV) are the most widespread health facilities and the first point of access for family planning commodities in Nigeria. Providing contraceptive services to adolescents requires specific sets of skills and an environment that are youth friendly. This study examines the capacity of PPMV to offer contraceptive services to adolescents. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. We interviewed 462 PPMV selected from urban and sub-urban Local Government Areas (LGA) of Kaduna State using a multistage random sampling technique. Data analysis was based on percentages conducted with SPSS software, version 20. Findings from the assessment show that PPMV are a mix of professionals and lay providers. 43.1% possess a qualification in Nursing, midwifery, or community health, and 18.8% have received specific training on contraceptive services. 91.6% are dispensing contraceptives that are suitable for adolescents, and 97.4% are willing to acquire additional training to provide adolescent-friendly contraceptive services for both the married and unmarried. The study equally shows that most PPMVs have private space (70.1%) for confidential counselling and operate seven days a week (86.6%) and twelve or more hours a day (83.3%). Pharmacists Council of Nigeria should consider expanding the scope of contraceptive services that PPMV can provide based on their training.

Keywords: Adolescents, Contraceptive, Drug Stores, Family planning, PPMV, Youth-friendly services.


[1] National Bureau of Statistics (2017). Demographic Statistics Bulletin.

[2] National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF (2019). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. 2018 Key Indicators Report. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF.

[3] UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN-DESA Population Division (2017). Levels and trends in child mortality report 2017. Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation.

[4] WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group, and the United Nations Population Division (2015). Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015. WHO Document Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 156514 1.

[5] Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria (2009). Assessment Report of the National Response to Adolescents Sexual and Reproductive Health in Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria.

[6] Federal Ministry of Health (2007). National Strategic Framework on Health and Development of Adolescents and Adolescents in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Health Abuja, Nigeria.

[7] Federal Ministry of Health (2007). National HIV/AIDS Reproductive Health Survey. Federal Ministry of Health Abuja, Nigeria.

[8] Meeting the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Adolescents in Nigeria: A Guide for Action

[9] Sulava Gautam (2012). Best Practices for Youth-Friendly Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Schools: Recommendations for School Nurse and School-Based or School-Linked Health Center Staff.

[10] Oona M. R. Campbell1, Lenka Benova, David MacLeod1, Rebecca F. Baggaley, Laura C. Rodrigues, Kara Hanson, Timothy Powell-Jackson, Loveday Penn-Kekana, Reen Polonsky, Katharine Footman, Alice Vahanian, Shreya K. Pereira, Andreia Costa Santos, Veronique G. A. Filippi, Caroline A. Lynch, and Catherine Goodman (2016). Family planning, antenatal and delivery care: cross‐sectional survey evidence on levels of coverage and inequalities by public and private sector in 57 low‐ and middle‐income countries. Tropical Medicine and International Health.

[11] John Stanback, Conrad Otterness, Martha Bekiita, Olivia Nakayiza, and Anthony K. Mbonye (2011). Injected with Controversy: Sales and Administration of Injectable Contraceptives in Drug Shops in Uganda. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 24-29. Guttmacher Institute.

[12] Angela Akol, Dawn Chin-Quee, Patricia Wamala-Mucheri, Jane Harriet Namwebya, Sarah Jilani Mercer, and John Stanback (2014). Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda. Global Health: Science and Practice December 2014, 2(4):472-481;

[13] Elena Lebetkin, Tracy Orr, Kafui Dzasi, Emily Keyes, Victoria Shelus, Stephen Mensah, Henry Nagai, and John Stanback (2014). Injectable Contraceptive Sales at Licensed Chemical Seller Shops in Ghana: Access and Reported Use in Rural and Periurban Communities. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 21-27. Published by: Guttmacher Institute. DOI: 10.1363/4002114.

[14] Mojisola M Fayemi, Olufemi L Oduola Queen C Ogbuji Kehinde A, Osinowo Adejoke E, Oyewo Olabimpe M, Osiberu (2010). The knowledge of emergency contraception and dispensing practices of Patent Medicine Vendors in Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Public Health Policy, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 281–294.

[15] PSI, SFH, and FP Watch (2016) Nigeria 2015 Outlet Survey Findings. 2016. FP watch Research Brief. Population Services International, Society for Family Health, and FP watch. Washington DC: USA.

[16] A.D Okonkwo, U.P Okonkwo (2010). Patent medicine vendors, community pharmacists, and STI management in Abuja, Nigeria. African Health Sciences; vol 10, No 3. Pp.: 253 – 265.

[17] Goodman C, Brieger W, Unwin A et al (2007). Medicine sellers and malaria treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: what do they do, and how can their practice be improved? Am J Trop Med Hyg; 77:203 –218.

[18] Brieger WR, Osamor PE, Salami KK, Oladepo O, Otusanya SA (2004). Interactions between patent medicine vendors and customers in urban and rural Nigeria. Health Policy Plan; 19:177-182.

[19] Chinazo Ujuju, Samson B Adebayo, Jennifer Anyanti, Obi Oluigbo, Fatima Muhammad, Augustine Ankomah (2014). An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria. Dove Press Journal: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare :7 163–171.

[20] Editorial Board (2019). Tackling Doctor-Patient Ratio. Leadership Newspaper Editorial May 1, 2019.

[21] Ekpenyong, Aniekan; Udoh, Arit; Kpokiri, Eneyi; Bates, Ian (2018). An analysis of pharmacy workforce capacity in Nigeria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice.

[22] Barnes J, Chandani T, Feeley R. (2008). Nigeria Private Sector Health Assessment. Bethesda: Private Sector Partnerships-One project, Abt Associates Inc.

[23] Meghan Corroon, Essete Kebede, Gean Spektor and Ilene Speizer (2016). Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya. Global Health: Science and Practice December 2016, 4(4):594-609;

[24] Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Catherine Lane, Sylvia Wong (2015). What Does Not Work in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Evidence on Interventions Commonly Accepted as Best Practices. Global Health Science Practice vol. 3 no. 3 p. 333-340, doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-15-00126.

[25] IntegratE (2018). Report of GIS Mapping Survey and Directory of Community Pharmacists and Patent and Proprietary Medicine in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

[26] Oluwasina, Folajinmi Oluyemi (2017) Factors Affecting the Uptake of Modern Contraception Services among Women of Reproductive Age in Nigeria. Texila International Journal of Public Health Volume 5, Issue 4.

[27] Kaduna State Bureau of Statistics (2019). Demography. 2019 Key Indicators.

[28] Liu, J., Beyeler, N., Prach, L.M., Sieverding, M., Isiguzo, C., Nwokolo, E., Anyanti, J. (2015). The Landscape of Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors in 16 States of Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: Society for Family Health.

[29] Saima Hamid and Rob Stephenson (2006). Provider and Health Facility Influences on Contraceptive Adoption in Urban Pakistan. International Family Planning Perspectives. Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 71-78. Guttmacher Institute.