The Impact of Covid 19 on School Administrators’ Leadership Attributes in Selected Schools in Jamaica
Principals have been called
upon to utilize their personal leadership resources in Jamaican schools during the
novel Corona Virus pandemic. This crisis has forced a radical shift in the landscape
of school leadership and management not only in Jamaica but globally. The purpose
of this descriptive quantitative study was to ascertain the impact of Covid-19 on
principals’ level of compassion and care, openness and communication, adaptiveness,
resilience and courage, consultation and collaboration, empowerment, and decisiveness.
Additionally, it sought to assess whether there were differences in these leadership
attributes based on school level, region, and gender. A
24-item questionnaire developed and validated by Balasubramanian and Fernandes
(2022) and achieved an overall Cronbach Alpha of .84 was used to collect data. The
sample included 50 principals and vice principals selected conveniently from the
7 regions 18 completed and returned the questionnaire, 15 females and 3 males. The
data were coded and imported into the SPSS, version 27, and were screened, cleaned,
and analyzed using weighted means and standard deviations and MANOVA. The mean ranges
for interpretation include: 1.00 – 2.33 = Low Attribute; 2.34 – 3.67 = Moderate
Attribute and 3.68 – 5.00 = High Attribute. The results showed that the principal
participants scored high on leadership attributes. These findings hold critical and practical lessons for handling future crises.
They show that effective leaders in many schools can function effectively in a crisis
given that the policy makers provide adequate guidance and regulations with a relevant
 OECD. (2020).
A framework to guide an education response to the Covid-19 Pandemic of 2020. Date
of Access: 10/09/2022. https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=126_126988-t63lxosohs&title=A-framework-to-guide-an-education-response-to-the-Covid-19-Pandemic-of-2020.
S., Almuwais, A.,and Almoayad, F (2020). Readiness towards emergency shifting to
remote learning during Covid-19 pandemic among university instructors. E Learning
and Digital Media. Online First 18 (5): 1-20.
S. (2020). No time to say goodbye How Coronavirus is changing learning. https://patch.com/wisconsin/mountpleasant/no-time-say-goodbye-how-coronavirus-changing-learning?utm_source=facebook.com&utm_medium=social&utm_term=kids+%26+family+&utm_campaign=autopost&utm_content=mountpleasant-sturtevant&fbclid=IwAR1dCunSNxj06KETOvh7hVtjxaxQaCfw5sF5X3IZJ05mM14GHqe9-6cPPQM.
T., Kalmukov, Y., and Valova, I. (2020). Covid 19 – A major cause of digital transformation
in education or just an evaluation test. TEM Journal, 9(3), 1163–1170.
P. (2010). Developing a self-evaluating school: A practical guide. (NY: Continuum
International Publishing Group).
 Barrow K.,
Boyle H., Ginsburg M., Leu E., Pier D., Price-Rom A. & Rocha V. (2006) Cross-National
Synthesis on Education Quality Report No 2: Professional Development and Teachers’
Conceptions of Educational Quality. US Agency for International Development, Washington
M. J., Levant, R. F., Hall, J. E., & Glueckauf, R. L. (2007). Distance education
in Professional training in psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice,
D. (2018) Improving the Academic Performance of Boys in Jamaica: An Intervention
Model. In C. Beckford the contemporary Caribbean: Issues, Challenges, and opportunities.
Central America and the Caribbean, ISBN 978-1-53614-088-0.
D. & Bourne, P. A. (2018). An Inquiry into Teachers Perception of at-Risk Students
in Jamaica: A Phenomenological Approach. International Journal of Emergency Mental
Health and Human Resilience,
Vol.20, No. 2, pp 1-10© 2018 OMICS International ISSN 1522-4821. Retrieved May 2020
G. B. (2015). Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics
of Crisis. Journal of Education Policy 30 (1): 1–20.
B., Rahimi, M. & Riley, P. (2021). “Working through the First Year of the Pandemic:
A Snapshot of Australian School Leaders’ Work Roles and Responsibilities and Health
and Wellbeing during Covid-19.” Journal of Educational Administration and History
53 (3–4):301–309. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220620.2021.1975367.
P., Greany, T. & Martindale, N. (2021). “The Trust Deficit in England: Emerging
Research Evidence about School Leaders and the Pandemic.” Journal of Educational
Administration and History 53 (3–4): 296–300. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220620.2021.1975366.
 Reid, D.
B. (2022). “Suppressing and Sharing: How School Principals Manage Stress and Anxiety
during Covid-19.” School Leadership & Management 42 (1): 62–78. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2021.1974827.
S. A., Steffens, N. K., Reicher, S. D., & Bentley, S. V. (2021). Identity leadership
in a crisis: A 5R framework for learning from responses to Covid-19. Social Issues
and Policy Review, 15(1), 35–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/sipr.12075.
 Kaul, V.,
Shah, V. H., & El-Serag, H. (2020). Leadership during crisis: Lessons and Applications
from the Covid-19 pandemic. Gastroenterology, 159(3), 809–812. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.076.
K. M., Abadi, M., Alizadeh, A., Barhate, B.,Garza, R. C., Gunasekara, N., Ibrahim,
G., & Majzun, Z. (2020). Leadership competencies and the essential role of human
resource development in times of crisis: A response to Covid-19 pandemic. Human
Resource Development International, 23(4), 380–394. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2020.1780078.
(2020a). The heart of resilient leadership: Responding to Covid-19: A guide for
senior executives. https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/insights/economy/covid-19/heart-of-resilient-leadership-responding-to-covid-19.html.
B. B., Patlas, M. N., & Lexa, F. J. (2020). Crisis Leadership During and Following
Covid-19. Canadian Association of Radiologists’ Journal, 71(4), 421–422. https://doi.org/10.1177/0846537120926752.
J. K. (2020). Reflections on leadership in the time of Covid-19. BMJ Leader, 4(1),
B., Nabarro, D., Oqubay, A., Carnall, D. A., & Wild, L. (2020). 5 principles
to guide adaptive leadership. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/09/5-principles-to-guide-adaptive-leadership.
J. (2017). New Research: 7 Ways to Become a More Resilient Leader, Date of Access:
 UN Global
Compact (2020). Covid-19: What makes a good leader during a crisis. https://unglobalcompact.org/take-action/20th-anniversary-campaign/covid-19-what-makes-a-good-leader-during-a-crisis.
 Sadiq, A.
A., Kapucu, N., & Hu, Q. (2021). Crisis leadership during Covid-19: The role
of governors in the United States. International Journal of Public Leadership, 17
(1), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPL-08-2020-0071.
U., Sobral, F., & Furtado, L. M. G. P. (2020). Leadership under crises: A research
agenda for the post-Covid-19 Era. BAR − Brazilian Administration Review,
H. J. (1996). Why employee empowerment is not just a fad. Leadership and Organization
Development Journal, 17(4), 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739610120574.
 Quinn, R.
E., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1997). The road to empowerment: Seven questions every
leader should consider. Organizational Dynamics, 26(2), 37–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(97)90004-8.
A., Braun, A., Sam Duncan, S., Harmey, S., Levy, R. & Moss, G. (2022). Crisis
policy enactment: primary school leaders’ responses to the Covid-19 pandemic in
England. Retrieved September 2022 from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02680939.2022.2097316.
Kennedy School (2022). A Female Leadership Trust Advantage in Times of Crisis: Under
What Conditions? Retrieved September 2022 from: https://gap.hks.harvard.edu/female-leadership-trust-advantage-times-crisis-under-what-conditions.
 Oakes, K.
(2022). The invisible danger of the ‘glass cliff’. Retrieved September 2022 from:
J. (2013). Steps in conducting a scholarly mixed methods study. Presentation, University
of Nebraska, London. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1047&context=dberspeakers.
 Bradt, J.,
Burns, D., and Creswell, J. (2013) Mixed methods research in music therapy research.
Journal of Music Therapy, 50(2), 123-148.
E. R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research Quantitative Research in Education
with SPSS. SAGE Publications, 12, 1-4.
P., Harriott, T., Healy, G., Arenge, G. & Wilson, E. (2021), Pressures and influences
on school leaders navigating policy development during the Covid-19 pandemic. British
Educational Research Journal. https://doi-org.am.e-nformation.ro/10.1002/berj.3760.