Analysis of the Adequacy of National Agricultural Policy in Addressing Entrepreneurial Education of Selected Agricultural Training Institutions in Zambia

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJMG.2015.SE.19.01.Art005

Authors : John Phiri


The study seeks to establish the adequacy of National Agricultural Policy in addressing entrepreneurial education of selected Agricultural Training Institutions in Zambia. A descriptive survey design was employed using a mixed methods approach but with greater focus on qualitative approach. Purposive random sampling procedure was used. Quantitative data was analysed using frequencies, percentages and tables while qualitative data was analysed thematically. Most of the respondents interviewed acknowledged that the current National Agricultural Policy did not adequately address entrepreneurial education in Agricultural Training Institutions. The National Agricultural Policy, both in terms of content and strategies did not appear to achieve the desired result of entrepreneurial education as they tended to be biased towards food security, fish, crop and livestock production compared to nurturing entrepreneurs. It showed fragmented sectorial strategies and policies which did not point to entrepreneurial education. A general lack of comprehensive institutional frameworks and Acts of Parliament to support and address the issues of entrepreneurial education in Agricultural Training Institutions was observed as a major constraint to job creation. The study concluded that entrepreneurial education in the National Agricultural Policy was inadequate. This research, therefore, recommended integration of entrepreneurial education in the National Agricultural Policy and enactment of appropriate strategic Acts of Parliament to support entrepreneurial education and decent job creation.

Keywords: Agricultural Training, Entrepreneurial Education, National Agricultural Policy


[1].     Agi U.K. and Yellowe N.A. (2013). Management Strategies for Regenerating Secondary Education for National Development and Self-Reliance. Journal of Teacher Perspective (JOTEP) 7(2).

[2].     Ajufo, B.I. (2013). Challenges of Youth Unemployment in Nigeria: Effective Career Guidance as a Panacea. An International Multidisciplinary Journal 7(1), 307-321.

[3].     Anho, J.E. (2013). Recreating the Management and Administration of Adult and Non-Formal Education Vis-àvis Entrepreneurship Education for Unemployment and Poverty Eradication. A paper presented at the Conference of Association of Nigeria Teachers (ASCONT), Enugu.

[4].     Bridges, W. (1995). Job shift. How to prosper in a workplace without jobs. London: Nicholas Braeley Publishing.

[5].     Charney, A. And Libecup, D.B. (2000). The impact of Entrepreneurship Education: An evaluation of the Berger Entrepreneurship Program at the University of Arizona, 1985-1999. Kansas City, M1. The Kauffman Centre for Entrepreneurial Leadership.

[6].     Consortium of Entrepreneurship Education. 2004. (Online) Available: [Accessed 14 October 2015].

[7].     Cooper, C. A. and Dunkelberg, W. C. (1987). Entrepreneurial research: Old questions, new answers and methodological issues. American Journal of Small Business, 11(3): 11-23.

[8].     CSO, (2005) Ministry of Labour and Social Security Labour Force Survey Report, Labour Statistics Branch, CSO, Lusaka, Zambia

[9].     Datta, P.B. (2011). Exploring the evolution of entrepreneurial education and innovation: A case study from India. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 10, 55-75. doi: tmsd.10.1.55_1.

[10]. Driver M. (2012) An Interview with Michael Porter: Social Entrepreneurship and the Transformation of Capitalism Academy of Management Learning and Education, 11 (2012), pp. 421-431

[11]. FNDP, (2006) Republic of Zambia Firth National Development Plan, December 2006, Lusaka

[12]. FSD Zambia (2009). Finances national survey 2009. Dynamics of Zambia’s changing financial landscape. Lusaka, Zambia: FSD Zambia.

[13]. Gabr, H., and Hoffman, A. (2006). A general policy framework for entrepreneurship. FORA, Division for Research and Analysis, Copenhagen: Ministry of Business and Economic Affairs.

[14]. Gartner, W.B. (2001). “Is there an elephant in Entrepreneurship? Blind Assumptions in Theory Development. (Business Research)” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Summer 2001

[15]. Gibb, A. (2002). In Pursuit of a New “Enterprise” and “Entrepreneurship” Paradigm for Learning: Creative Deconstruction, New Values, New Ways of Doing Things and New Combinations of Knowledge. International Journal of Management Review 4(3), 233-69.

[16]. Government of the Republic of Zambia. (2011). Sixth national development plan 2011 to 2015. Sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. Ministry of Finance and National Planning. (Online). Availablefrom:

[17]. Kandemir, D and Acur, N. (2012). 'Examining Proactive Strategic Decision-Making Flexibility in New Product Development', Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29, 4, pp. 608-622.

[18]. Kaplan, J. M. and Warren, A.C. (2010). Patterns of entrepreneurship management. 3rd edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and sons.

[19]. Kelly M.J. (2010). The Origins and Development of Education in Zambia: from Pre-colonial Times of 1996: A Book of Notes and Readings -Image Publishers Limited, Lusaka.

[20]. Kreitner, R and Cassidy, C. (2011). Management. 12th ed. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage

[21]. Lauzikas, M. and Cernikovaitė, M.E. (2011). The Model of Social Innovations in the Emerging Market of Lithuania. Intelektinė ekonomika, (5 (3), 388-400.

[22]. Lichtenstein, G.A., T.S. Lyons, and N. Kutzhanova. (2004). Building Entrepreneurial Communities: The Appropriate Role of Enterprise Development Activities. Journal of the Community Development Society 35(1):5-24.

[23]. Mayoux, L. (2001). Jobs, Gender and Small Enterprises: Getting the Policy Environment Right. Geneva: ILO.

[24]. Meany, C. S. (1994) ‘State Policy and the Development of Taiwan’s Semiconductor Industry’, in J. Aberbach et al., The Role of the State in Taiwan’s Development (London: M. E. Sharpe).

[25]. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (2004). National Agricultural Policy 2004 to 2015. Government printers, Lusaka.

[26]. Ministry of Education (1996) Educating Our Future: National Policy on Education – Government Printers, Lusaka.

[27]. Panagiotou, G (2008) 'Conjoining prescriptive and descriptive approaches: Towards an integrative framework of decision-making. A conceptual note', Management Decision, 46, 4, pp. 553-564.

[28]. Porter, M.E. (2004). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for analysing industries and Competitors, The Free Press, New York.

[29]. Rahman, N, and de Feis, G (2009) 'Strategic decision-making: models and methods in the face of complexity and time pressure', Journal of General Management, 35, 2, pp. 43-59.

[30]. Ronan,N.J.(1995). Adult Learning Styles and Academic Performance. International Journal of University Adult Education, XXIV (1),27-36.

[31]. Roscoe, A.M and Lang, D. (1975): Follow up Methods, Questionnaire Length, and Market Differences in Mail Survey, Journal of Marketing, Vol.39. No 2, pp.20-35.

[32]. Stacey, R. D. (2007). Strategic management and organisational dynamics: the challenge of complexity to ways of thinking about organisations. 5. ed. Harlow: Financial Times.

[33]. Simmons, J, (ed,) (1980) The Education Dilemma Policy Issues for Developing Countries in the 1980s, Oxford: Pergamon Press.

[34]. Stevenson, L. and Lundström, A. (2005). Beyond the rhetoric: Defining entrepreneurship policy and its best practice components. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research.

[35]. Taylor, P.H. & Richards, C. M. (1985): An Introduction to Curriculum Studies (London: NFER-Nelson).

[36]. UNCTAD (2010) World Investment Report 2000: Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions (Geneva: UNCTAD).

[37]. World Bank (2011) World Development indicators (Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).