The Impact of Brand Awareness on Customer Loyalty: A Case Study of Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ghana Limited

Download Article

Authors : Isaac Tandoh


Given a much broader array of product choices offered in the current financial market and ubiquitous marketing efforts in Ghana, customers often turn to a favorite brand to facilitate their purchase decisions. Brand awareness creation and strategies seem to serve as a roadmap to customer decision facilitator. This study is principally focused on the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty, a case study of Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ghana limited.

Data was drawn from both primary and secondary sources and the main instrument for data collection was the questionnaire and interview involving 301 respondents sampled from the customers of Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ghana Limited across Ghana and a brand manager of Sinapi Aba Savings and loans Limited.


Generally, the study revealed that, brand awareness strategies practice is a very prominent feature in the savings and loans industry in Ghana and customers are very much aware of the various brand awareness strategies practiced by Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ltd. Events influencing actual decision to patronize the services of savings and loans industry which included brand trust, Corporate reputation, peer group opinion, recall of ad’s, service delivery and employee appearance ranked highest.

The study recommends that savings and loans companies in Ghana need to do a continuous follow up to establish long term relationship with new customers when implementing brand awareness strategies.


Brand, awareness, strategies, relationship, trust, reputation


1.      Aaker, D. A. (2007). Strategic market management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

2.      Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research,

a.       34(3), 347-356.

3.      Ahuvia, A. C. (2005). Beyond the extended self: Loved objects and consumers‘ identity

a.       narratives. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 171-184.

4.      Albert, N., Merunka, D., & Valette-Florence, P. (2008). When consumers love their brands: Exploring the concept and its dimensions. Journal of Business Research,

a.       61, 1062-1075.

5.      Alpert, J. I., & Alpert, M. I. (1989). Background music as an influence in consumer mood

a.       and advertising responses. Advances in Consumer Research, 16(1), 485-491.

6.      Anand, P., & Holbrook, M. B. (1986). Chasing the wundt curve: An adventure in

a.       consumer esthetics. Advances in Consumer Research, 13(1), 655-657.

7.      Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A

a.       review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3),

b.      411-423.

8.      Aron, A., Aron, E. N., Tudor, M., & Nelson, G. N. (1991). Close relationships as

a.       including other in the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 241- 253.

9.      Auty, S., & Elliott, R. (1998). Fashion involvement, self-monitoring and the meaning of

a.       brands. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 7(2), 109-123.

10.  Babin, B. J., Hardesty, D. M., & Suter, T. A. (2003). Color and shopping intentions: The

a.       intervening effect of price fairness and perceived affect. Journal of Business

b.      Research, 56(7), 541-551.

11.  Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models.

a.       Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16, 74-94.

12.  Bansal, H., Irving, G., & Taylor, S. (2004). A three-component model of customer

a.       commitment to service providers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,

b.      32(3), 234-250.

13.  Barker, J., Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D., Voss, G. B. (2002). The influence of multiple

a.       store environment cues on perceived merchandise value and patronage intentions.

b.      The Journal of Marketing, 66(2), 120-141.

14.  Beaudoin, P., & Lachance, M. J. (2006). Determinants of adolescents‘ brand sensitivity

a.       to clothing. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 34(4), 312-331.

15.  Behling, D. U. (1992). Three and a half decades of fashion adoption research: What have

a.       we learned? Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 10(2), 34-41.

16.  Bellizzi, J. A., & Hite, R. E. (1992). Environmental color, consumer feelings, and

a.       purchase likelihood. Psychology & Marketing, 9(5), 347-363.

17.  Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W., & Engel, J. F. (2005). Consumer behavior. (10th ed.).

a.       Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.

18.  Bloch, P. H., Sherrell, D. L., & Ridgway, N. M. (1986). Consumer search: An extended

a.       Framework. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(1), 119-126.

19.  Bone, P. F., & Ellen, P. S. (1999). Scents in the marketplace: Explaining a fraction of olfaction. Journal of Retailing, 75(2), 243-262.

20.  Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand experience: What is it? How is it measured? does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73, 52-68.

21.  Branden, N. (1980). The psychology of romantic love. Los Angeles, CA: J. P. Tarchers, Inc.

22.  Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: The Guilford Press.

23.  Browne, B., & Kaldenberg, D. (1997). Conceptualizing self-monitoring: Links to materialism and product involvement. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 14(1), 31- 44.

24.  Broyles, S. A., Schumann, D. W., & Leingpibul, T. (2009). Examining brand equity antecedent/consequence relationships. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 17(2), 145-161.

25.  Bruner, G. C. (1990). Music, mood, and marketing. Journal of Marketing, 54, 94-104.

26.  Buil, I., de Chernatony, L., & Martinez, E. (2008). A cross-national validation of the consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 17(6), 384–392.

27.  Bullmore, J. (1984). The brand and its image revisited. International Journal ofAdvertising, 3, 235-238.

28.  Burton, S., Netemeyer, R. G., & Lichtenstein, D. R. (1995). Gender differences for appearance-related attitudes and behaviors: Implications for consumer welfare. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 14, 60-75.

29.  Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate Publishers.

30.  Carroll, B. A., & Ahuvia, A. C. (2006). Some antecedents and outcomes of brand love .Market Letter, 17, 79-89.

31.  Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: The role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81-93.

32.  Chebat, J-C., & Michon, R. (2003). Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers‘emotions, cognition, and spending: A test of competitive causal theories. Journal of Business Research, 56, 529-539.

33.  Chen, F., Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Kirby, J., & Paxton, P. (2008). An empirical evaluation of the use of fixed cutoff points in RMSEA test statistic in structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 36(4), 462–494.

34.  Churchill, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 64-73.

35.  Cobby-Walgren, C. J., Ruble, C. A., & Donthu, N. (1995). Brand equity, brand preference, and purchase intent. Journal of Advertising, 24(3), 25-40.

36.  Cohen, D. (1986). Trademark strategy. Journal of Marketing, 50(1), 61-74. Creamer, M., & Parekh, R. (2009). Book of the tens: Ideas of the decade. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from

37.  Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

38.  Cross, S. E., Bacon, P. L., & Morris, M. L. (2000). The relational-interdependent self construal and relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 791-808.

39.  Darley, W. K., & Smith, R. E. (1995). Gender differences in information processing strategies: An empirical test of the selectivity model in advertising response. Journal of Advertising, 24(1), 41-57.

40.  Deng, S., & Dart, J. (1994). Measuring market orientation: A multi-factor, multi-item approach. Journal of Marketing Management, 10(8), 725-742.

41.  DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

42.  Dholakia, R. R. (1999). Going shopping: Key determinants of shopping behaviors and motivations. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 27(4), 154-165.

43.  Dichter, E. (1985). What is in an image. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 2(1), 75-81.

44.  Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-113.

45.  Dobni, D., & Zinkhan, G. M. (1990). In search of brand image: A foundation analysis. Advances in Consumer Research. 17, 110-119.

46.  Dube, L., Chebat, J-C., & Morin, S. (1995). The effects of background music on consumers desire to affiliate in buyer-seller interactions. Psychology & Marketing, 12(4), 305-319.

47.  Ellen, P. S., & Bone, P. F. (1999). Olfactory stimuli as advertising executional cues. Journal of Advertising, 27(4), 29-39.

48.  Esch, F-R., Langer, T., Schmitt, B. H., & Geus, P. (2006). Are brands forever? How brand knowledge and relationships affect current and future purchases. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(20), 98-105.

49.  Evans, M. (1989). Consumer behavior towards fashion. European Journal of Marketing, 23(7), 7-16.

50.  Farquhar, P. H. (1989). Managing brand equity. Marketing Research, 1(3), 24-33.

51.  Fiore, A. M. (2010). Understanding aesthetics for the merchandising and design professional. (2nd ed.). New York: Fairchild Books.

52.  Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24, 343-373.

53.  Frazer, C. F. (1983). Creative strategy: A management perspective. Journal of Advertising, 12(4), 36-41.

54.  Friedmann, R., & Lessig, V.P. (1987). Psychological meaning of products and product positioning. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 4, 265-273.

55.  Fullerton, G. (2005). The impact of brand commitment on loyalty to retail service brands. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 22(2), 97–110.

56.  Gardner, B. G., & Levy, S. J. (1955). The product and the brand. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 33-39.

57.  Gensch, D. H. (1978). Image-management segmentation. Journal of Marketing Research. XV(Aug), 384-394.

58.  Gil, R. B., Andres, E. F., & Salinas, E. M. (2007). Family as a source of consumer-based brand equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(3), 188-199.

59.  Gobé, M. (2001). Emotional branding: The paradigm for connecting brands to people. New York: Allworth Press.

60.  Gold, J. A., Ryckman, R. M., & Mosley, N. R. (1984). Romantic mood induction and attraction to a dissimilar other: Is love blind? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, 358-368.

61.  Goldsmith, R. E., & Flynn. L. R. (1992). Identifying innovators in consumer product markets. European Journal of Marketing, 26(12), 42-55.

62.  Goodwin, S. A., Fiske, S. T., Rosen, L. D., & Rosenthal, A. M. (2002). The eye of the beholder: Romantic goals and impression biases. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 232-241.

63.  Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

64.  Hartley, R. H. (2006). Marketing mistakes & successes. (10th ed.). New Jersey, NY: Wiley.

65.  Haynes, J. L., Burts, D. C., Dukes, A., & Cloud, R. (1993). Consumer socialization of preschoolers and kindergartners as related to clothing. Psychology & Marketing, 10(2), 151-166.

66.  Haynes, S. N., Richard, D. C. S., & Kubany, E. S. (1995). Content validity in psychological assessment: A functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 244-245.

67.  Healey, M. (2008). What is branding? Essential design handbooks. Mies, Switzerland: Rotovision.

68.  Hendrick, S. S., & Hendrick, C. (2006). Measuring respect in close relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23(6), 881-899.

69.  Hogg, M. K., Bruce, M., & Hill, A. J. (1998). Fashion brand preferences among young consumers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 26(8), 293-300.

70.  Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.

71.  Huck, S. W. (2007). Reading statistics and research. (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

72.  Hunt, S. D. (2002). Foundations of marketing theory: Toward a general theory of marketing. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

73. (2009, October). Best global brands 2009. Retrieved Oct 22, 2009, from Web site: aspx?langid=1000

74.  Jones, G., & Morgan, N. J. (1994). Adding value: Brands and marketing in food and drink. New York: Routledge.

75.  Johns, G. (1994). How often were you absent: A review of the use of self-reported absence data. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 574-591.

76.  Jung, J., & Sung, E. Y. (2008). Consumer-based brand equity: Comparisons among Americans and South Koreans in the USA and South Koreans in Korea. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 12(1), 24-35.

77.  Kaiser, S. B. (1997). The social psychology of clothing: Symbolic appearances in context (2nd ed.). New York: Fairchild.

78.  Keller, K. L. (2008). Strategic brand management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

79.  Keller, K. L, & Lehmann, D. R. (2006). Brands and branding: Research findings and future priorities. Marketing Science, 25(6), 740-759.

80.  Kim, E. Y., Knight, D. K., & Pelton, L. E. (2009). Modeling brand equity of a U.S. apparel brand as perceived by Generation Y consumers in the emerging Korean market. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 27(4), 247-258.

81.  Koçak, A., Abimbola, T., & Őzer, A. (2007). Consumer brand equity in a cross-cultural replication: An evaluation of a scale. Journal of Marketing Management. 23(1-2), 157-173.

82.  Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L., (2006). Marketing management. (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

83.  Kovecses, Z. (1990). Emotion concepts. New York: Springer-Verlag.

84.  Lassar, W., Mittal, B., & Sharma, A. (1995). Measuring customer-based brand equity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12, 11-19.

85.  Lee, A. J. (1977). A typology of styles of loving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 173-182.

86.  Liebowitz, M. R. (1983). The chemistry of love. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.

87.  Lindstrom, M. (2005). Brand sense: Build powerful brands through touch, taste, smell, sight, and sound. New York: Free Press.

88.  Lim, K., & O‘Cass, A. (2001). Consumer brand classifications: An assessment of cultureof-origin versus country-of-origin. Journal of Consumer marketing, 12(4), 11-19.

89.  Low, G. S., & Lam, C. W. (2000). The measurement and dimensionality of brand associations. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 9(6), 350-368.

90.  Mattila, A. S., & Wirtz, J. (2001). Congruency of scent and music as a driver of in-store evaluations and behavior. Journal of Retailing, 77, 273-289.

91.  McArthur, R. (2008). Business 24/7: Why love is the new black. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from 24_7.pdf.

92.  McCracken, G. D. (1988). The long interview. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

93.  McDonald, R. P. (1997). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

94.  Mehrabian A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

95.  Meyers-Levy, J., & Maheswaran, D. (1991). Exploring differences in males‘ and females‘ processing strategy. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 63-70.

96.  Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded source book. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

97.  Miller, C. (1991). Research reveals how marketer‘s can win by a nose. Marketing News, 25, 1-2.

98.  Moore, K., & Reid, S. (2008). The birth of brand: 4000 years of branding. Business History, 50(4), 419-432.

99.  Morgan, R., & Hunt, S. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.

100. Murray, S. L., Holmes, J. G., & Griffin, D. W. (1996). The benefits of positive illusions: Idealization and the construction of satisfaction in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 79-98.

101.    Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

102. Neumeier, M. (2006). The brand gap. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

103.    Nowak, L., Thach, L., & Olsen, J. E. (2006). Wowing the millennials: Creating brand equity in the wine industry. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(5), 316-323.

104.    Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

105.    Nysveen, H., Pedersen, Per. E., & Thorbjørnsen, H. (2005). Explaining intention to use mobile chat services: Moderating effects of gender. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 247-256.

106.    O‘Cass, A. (2000). An assessment of consumers‘ product, purchase decision, advertising and consumption involvement in fashion clothing. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22, 545-576.

107.    Oh, H., Fiore, A. M., & Jeong, M. (2007). Measuring experience economy concepts: Tourism applications. Journal of Travel Research, 46(2), 119-132.

108.    Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(Special Issue), 33-44.

109.    Pappu, R., & Quester, P. (2006). A consumer-based method for retailer equity measurement: Results of an empirical study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 13(5), 317-329.

110.    Pawle, J., & Cooper, P. (2006). Measuring emotion: Lovemarks, the future beyond brands. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(1), 38-48.

111.    Peck, J., & Childers, T. L. (2003a). To have and to hold: The influence of haptic information on product judgments. Journal of Marketing, 67(April), 35-48.

112.    Pedhazur, E. J., & Schmelkin, L. P. (1991). Measurement, design, and analysis: An integrated approach. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

113.    Phau, I., & Lo, C-C. (2004). Profiling fashion innovators: A study of self-concept, impulse buying and Internet purchase intent. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 8(4), 399-411.

114.    Pine, B. J. II., & Gilmore, H. J. (1999). The experience economy: Work is theatre & every business a stage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

115.    Pitta, D. A., & Katsanis, L. P. (1995). Understanding brand equity for successful brand extension. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 51-64.

116.    Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 69-82.

117.    Pohlman, A., & Mudd, S. (1973). Market image as a function of group and product type: A quantitative approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(2), 167-171.

118.    Postrel, V. (2003). The substance of style. New York: Harper Collins.

119.    Rapoport, A. (1982). The meaning of the built environment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

120.    Riesenbeck, H., & Perrey, J. (2007). Power brands: Measuring, making, managing brand success. New Jersey, NY: Wiley.

121.    Roberts, K. (2006). The lovemarks effect: Winning in the consumer revolution. New York: Powerhouse Books.

122.    Roth, M. S. (1995). The effects of culture and socioeconomics on the performance of global brand image strategies. Journal of Marketing Research, 32(May), 163-175.

123.    Rubin, Z. (1970). Measurement of romantic love. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 16, 265-273.

124.    Russell, D. W., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The revised UCLA loneliness scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 472-480.

125.    Schmitt, N. (1994). Method bias: The importance of theory and measurement. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 15, 393-398.

126.    Shimp, T. A., & Madden, T. J. (1988). Consumer-object relations: A conceptual framework based analogously on Sternberg‘s triangular theory of love. Advances in Consumer Research, 15, 163-168.

127.    Simon, C. J., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The measurement and determinants of brand equity: A financial approach. Marketing Science, 12(1), 28-52.

128.    Solomon, M. R., & Stuart, E. W. (2002). Marketing: Real people, real choice. (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

129.    Spearman, C. (1927). The abilities of man. New York: Macmillan.

130.    Spiggle, S. (1994). Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 491-503.

131.    Steel, E. (2010). Luring shoppers to stores: Marketers try interactive mirrors, discounts via scanners. Retrieved August 26, 2010, from 10001424052748704540904575451841980063132.html.

132.    Sternberg, R. J., & Grajek, S. (1984). The nature of love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 312-329.

133.    Taylor, S. A., Celuch, K., & Goodwin, S. (2004). The importance of brand equity to consumer loyalty. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 13(4), 217-227.

134.    Thomson, G. H. (1939). The factorial analysis of human ability. London: University of London Press.

135.    Thurstone, L. L. (1938). Primary mental abilities. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

136.    Tigert, D. J., Ring, L. J., & King, C. W. (1976). Fashion involvement and buying behavior: A methodological study. Advances in Consumer Research, 3(1), 46-52.

137.    Tong, X., & Hawley, J. M. (2009b). Measuring customer-based brand equity: Empirical evidence, from the sportswear market in China. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(4), 262-271.

138.    Valdez, P., & Albert, M. (1994). Effects of color on emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 123(4), 394-409.

139.    Vazquez, R., Del Rio, A. B., & Iglesias, V. (1994). Consumer-based brand equity: Development and validation of a measurement instrument. Journal of Marketing Management, 18(1/2), 27-28.

140.    Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2002). Testing cross-cultural invariance of the brand equity creation process. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 11(6), 380-398.

141.    Wengraf, T. (2001). Qualitative research interviewing: Semi-structured, biographical and narrative methods. London: Sage.

142.    Whang, Y-O., Allen, J., Sahoury, N., & Zhang, H. (2004). Falling in love with a product: The structure of a romantic consumer-product relationship. Advances in Consumer Research, 31, 320-327.

143.    Zacchilli, T., Hendrick, C., & Hendrick, S. S. (2009). The romantic partner conflict scale: A new scale to measure relationship conflict. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26(8), 1073-1096.

144.    Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. The Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 341-352.