The Role of “Social Class” in Relations to Educational Background, Income and Occupation in the Namibian Society

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJMG.2015.06.02.Art009

Authors : Josephine Shailemo


This paper examined the roles of social class in relation to education, income and occupation in the Namibian society specifically for the Windhoek residents. Qualitative research design was chosen to describe this study. Windhoek was selected as a case study because it is the capital city of Namibia and most of classification and combination of social class could easily be obtained there. The targeted population of Windhoek city is 268,000 but the population sample size was about 10 constituencies in Windhoek and out of those constituencies only 10 people per constituency were chosen for an interview. The study surveyed hundred (100) people from Windhoek, 10 residents per constituency. It was a survey whereby data was collected by the use of questionnaire which were prepared and presented to respondents and also the use of oral interviews was conducted. To give meaning to data, primary and secondary data was analyzed and presented in a form of tables, graphs, chart etc. The study found out that education, income and occupation do really relate to social class. The study recommends three things; firstly, the government of Namibia should intervene to assist the needy and encourage them to study, but they can also do it by giving them loans; Secondly, the society should come together and form up groups for self-sustainment; thirdly, future researchers should do more research of the entire country to generate adequate information on social issues.


[1].   Amoor, H. (2012). Quantitative methods: sampling and data collection. Research for Health Professionals.

[2].   Babbie, E. (1990). Survey research methods. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, California, Thousand Oaks: Wadsworth.

[3].   Best, W. & Khan, V. (1993) Research in Education (7th Ed.) Boston Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

[4].   Burns, N. & Grove, S. K. (1997). The practice of nursing research: Conduct, Critique and Utilization. (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

[5].   Chambers, R. (1989). Vulnerability. How the Poor Cope. IDS Bulletin. Sussex: Institute of Department studies.

[6].   “Social Grade National Readership Survey”. Retrieved 07 December, 2019.

[7].   Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research designs: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oak, CA: Sage.

[8].   Davis, K & W.E. Moore (1970[1945]. “Some Principles of Stratification”

[9].   Dobrovolny, L. & Fuentes, S. (2008). Quantitative versus qualitative evaluation: A tool to decide which to use. Performance Improvement, vol.47, no.4, pp.7-14.

[10].  Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Lowe, A. (2002). Management research: an introduction. (2nd ed.) Sage. London.

[11].  Flick, E. (2011). Introducing Research Methodology. London: Sage.

[12].  Joseph, J. (2004) Social Theory. Washington Square, New York: New York University Press.

[13].  Kelly, R. (1994). Race Rebels: Culture, Politics and the Black Working Class. New York: The Free Press. Kinsey, A. (1948).

[14].  Kinsey, A.; Pomeroy, W., Martin, C., & Gebhard, P. Sexual Behavior in the Human – Female, Philadelphia: Saunders (1953), ISBN 978- 0–253–33411-4.

[15].>historical-diversity-of-sexual-orientation Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2018.

[16].  Kothari, C. R. (2004), Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (Second Edition), New Age International Publishers.

[17]. stratification, inequality, and social class in the U.S.

[18].  Macionis, J (2007) Sociology (11th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

[19].  Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1848) “The Communist Manifesto” Simon: 157-186.

[20].  Masionis, J. J. (2010). Sociology. (13th ed.). London, England: Pearson.

[21].  Mouser, B. L (2012) Thesis: “A Critical Literature Review of Social Class in American Sociology”.

[22].  Newman, I., Newman I., Benz, C. R. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methods exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale, I11: Southern Illinois, University Press.

[23].  Occupation groupings: a job dictionary. Market Research Society (3rd ed.) (1991).

[24].  Pera, S. A & Van Tonder, S. (1996). Ethics in Nursing Practice. Juta & CO Ltd, Landsowne.

[25].  Price, J. H. & Murnan, J. (2004). Research Limitations and the necessity of Reporting Them”. American Journal of Health Education Vol 35 No. 2: 66-67; Structure: How to Structure the Research Limitations Section of your Dissertation. Dissertations and Theses: An online Textbook.

[26].  Puja Mondal;

[27].  Research in the Sociology of Education edited by Hyunjoon Park and Grace Kao. Research in the Sociology of Education, Volume 20.

[28].  Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business, A Skill-Building Approach. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[29].  Smith, A. W, (1989). Journal of Negro Education Vol.58, No.3, Shaping the Urban Future: People and Places, Problems and Potentials (Summer, 1989), pp. 416-429.

[30].  Social Class in India: Class typology and class consciousness social class: meaning, characteristics and divisions of social class.

[31].  Waitzkin (1986) Capitalism, Socialism and the Physical Quality of life.

[32].  Welman, K., & Mitchell, A. (2005). Research Methodology. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

[33].  Worthington, I. & Britton, C. (2006) The Business Environment, Pearson.

[34].  White, C. M., St. John, P. D; Cheverie, M.R. et al. The role of income and occupation in the association of education with healthy aging: results from a population-based, prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health 15, 1181 (2015) doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2504.