Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender: How satisfied are they with their life conditions?
LGBT population in Ghana experience numerous discrimination
and abuses in their everyday lives. These issues have been found to have a detrimental
effect on the life of these individuals. This study sought to examine how the discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs
in Ghana affect their self-esteem and life satisfaction. The study
used data from 494 self-identified LGBTs, recruited via non-probability sampling technique of
snow-ball. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages were used to describe
the distribution of responses of the participants. The inferential statistics of
multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the impact the discrimination
and abuses have on the self-esteem and life satisfaction of the LGBTs. The findings
of the study revealed that LGBTs in Ghana experience a high level of self-esteem contrary
to the assertion that LGBTs have low self-esteem. The findings of the study also
revealed that majority of the LGBTs in Ghana are satisfied with their lives. The
results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that overall, the discrimination
and abuses faced by the LGBTs accounts for 16.3 per cent and 38.4 per cent of the
variation in the self-esteem and life-satisfaction of the LGBTs, respectively. Meanwhile,
the findings indicated that the social and family discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs have a negative
impact on their life satisfaction. It is recommended that policy makers, family members, health care professionals and the general
public play their role in helping to lessen the discrimination and abuses faced
by the LGBTs in Ghana.
N., 2020a, Mental health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender populations
in Ghana: An empirical study approach. Texila International Journal of Public Health,
N., 2020b, Discrimination and abuses: The impact on the mental and general health
conditions of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender populations in Ghana. Texila
International Journal of Academic research, 7(1), 30-45.
N., 2020c, Health disparities among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population
in Ghana. Texila International Journal of Nursing, 6(1), 84-96.
N. M., 2015, Perceptions of youth towards homosexuality in Ghana. Date of access:
R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D., 2003, Does high self-esteem
cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles?
Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1-44.
R.F., Tice, D.M. and Hutton, D.G., 1989, Self-presentational motivations and personality
differences in self-esteem. J Pers, 57, 547-79.
R.C., Ross, M.W., Weatherburn, P., Schmidt, A.J., 2013, Structural and environmental
factors are associated with internalized homonegativity in men who have sex with
men: findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) in 38 countries. Soc
Sci Med, 78, 61-9.
J., Heaven, P. C. L., & Fiona, D., 2007, The impact of hope, self-esteem, and
attributional style on adolescents’ school grades and emotional well-being: A longitudinal
study. Journal of Research in Personality, 41 (6), 1161-117.
S. O., 2009, It’s a Silent Trade: Female Same-sex intimacies in post-colonial Ghana.
NORA-Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 17, 192–205.
. Diener, E., and Diener,
M., 1995, Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. J Pers
Soc Psychol, 68, 653.
. Diener, E., Emmons,
R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S., 1985, The satisfaction with life scale. Journal
of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.
. Essien K., and Aderinto,
A. S., 2009, Cutting the Heaf of the Roaring Monster: Homosexuality and Repression
in Africa. African Study Monographs, 30(3), 121-135.
. Fincham, J.E., 2008,
Response Rates and Responsiveness for Surveys, Standards, and the Journal. American
Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(2), 43-45.
. Frimpong, D., 2018,
These are 8 countries in Africa where homosexuality is legal. Date of access: 13/12/2018.
. Ghana Statistical Service
(2013). 2010 Population & Housing Census: National Analytical Report. Date of
access: 23/01/2019. http://www2.statsghana.gov.gh/.
. Ghana Statistical Service
(2018). 2010 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2016. Date of access: 23/01/2019.
. Graupner, H.,2005,
Sexuality and human rights in Europe. J. Homosex, 48, 107-39.
. Gray-Little, B., Williams,
V.S.L., & Hancock, T. D., 1997, An item response theory analysis of the Rosenberg
Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 (1), 443-451.
. Haruna, U., 2015, Stirring
the Hornet’s Nest: a study of student’s awareness, perception and tolerance of homosexuality
in a Ghanaian university. Journal of Sociological Research, 6(1), 1-19.
. Hu, J., Hu, J., Huang,
G., Zheng, X., 2016, Life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness among LGB adults
and heterosexual adults in China. Journal of Homosexuality, 63(1), 72–86.
. Human Right Watch,
2018, No Choice but to Deny Who I Am’: Violence and Discrimination against LGBT
People in Ghana. Date of access: 12/09/2018. https://www.hrw.org/report
. Isay, R.A., 1989, Being
Homosexual: Gay Men and Their Development. Penguin Books.
. Kitzinger, C., and
Coyle, A., 2002, Introducing lesbian and gay psychology. In A. Coyle, &C. Kitzinger
(Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: new perspectives (pp. 1–29). Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
. Leonard, W., 2002,
What’s the difference?: health issues of major concern to gay lesbian bisexual transgender
and intersex (GLBTI) Victorians. Ministerial Advisory Committee on Gay and Lesbian
Health (MACGLH). Department of Human Services, Melbourne.
. Mac-Darling, C., 2011,
Because of You: Blackmail and Extortion of Gay and Bisexual Men in Ghana: International
Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC), Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and
Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa. Date of access: 12/08/2018
. McNair, R., Anderson,
S., Mitchell, A., 2003, Addressing health inequalities in Victorian lesbian, gay,
bisexual and transgender communities. Health Promot J Austr, 11(1), 32–38.
. Meyer, I., 2003, Prejudice,
social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual
issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674–697.
. Ofori, E., 2014, Perception
of students on the practices of homosexuality amongst students in the Cape Coast.
International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4(2), 117-122.
. Pavot, W., & Diener,
E., 2008, The satisfaction with Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction.
The Journal of Positive Psychology,
. Petrou P. & Lemke
R., 2017, Victimization and life satisfaction of gay and bisexual individuals in
44 European countries: the moderating role of country-level and person-level attitudes
towards homosexuality. Culture, Health & Sexuality. DOI: 10.1080/13691058.2017.1368710.
. Powdthavee, N. and
Wooden, M., 2015, Life satisfaction and sexual minorities: evidence from Australia
and the United Kingdom. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 116, 107-126.
. Rosenberg, M., 1965,
Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. University of Nebraska Press.
. Rosenberg, M., 1985,
Self-concept and psychological well-being in adolescence. In Development of the
Self (ed. R Leahy): 205-46. Academic Press.
. Rosenberg, M., Schooler,
C. and Schoenbach, C., 1989, Self-esteem and adolescent problems: modeling reciprocal
effects. Am Sociol Rev, 54, 1004-18.
. Rosser, B.R.S., Ross,
M.W., Miner, M.H., Coleman, E., 2008, The relationship between homosexuality, internalized
homo-negativity, and mental health in men who have sex with men. J Homosex, 55,
. Rubinstein, G., 2010,
Narcissism and Self-Esteem among Homosexual and Heterosexual Male Students. J Sex Marital Ther, 36(1): 24-34.
. Snapp, S.D., Burdge,
H., Licona, A.C., Moody, R. & Russell, S.T., 2015, Students’ perspectives on
LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum. Equity Excell. Educ. 48,249–65.
. Symister, P., &
Friend, R., 2003, The influence of social support and problematic support on optimism
and depression in chronic illness: A prospective study evaluating self-esteem as
a mediator. Health Psychology, 22, 123–129.
. Szymanski, D.M., Chung,
Y.B., and Balsam, K.F., 2001, Psychological correlates of internalized homophobia
in lesbians. Meas Eval Couns Dev, 34, 27-38.
. UNHCR., 2010, Tackling
discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. Date of access:
World Bank, 2019, World Development Report 2019: The changing nature of work. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-1328-3
. Worldometers, 2019,
Ghana Population. Date of access: 23/01/2019. http://www.worldometers.info