Factors Affecting Sustainable and Quality Technical Vocational Training (TVT) Projects in Zambia
purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting Sustainable and
Quality TVT projects in public TEVET institutions in Zambia.
the present challenges on the Technical and Vocational training has jeopardized
the sustainability for Education in terms of quality project Training Delivery
and provision of good service in Zambia. Therefore, the good corporate
Governance is a cornerstone and hallmark of any successful entity be in health business,
education or indeed any other undertaking in any sector.
Zambian Government introduced "Management Boards initiative" for it
to survival and produce positive results; however, in an effort to fulfill this
obligation, the Zambian Government has encountered obstacles and Globalization
challenges that have considerably weakened its role. Therefore, the policy of
the management board and lack of suitable curriculum development have attracted
debate in the Technical and Vocational training sector.
study is therefore, an attempt to identify and discuss problems and constraints
responsible for the declining standards (provision of quality training
delivery) or total quality assurance in the Ministry of Education Science
Vocational Training and Education Early Child (MESVTEE) and recommend possible
need for understanding the study was based on the concept of embracing
sustainability as the life blood. The Methodology research was guided by a
qualitative mode of inquiry called Action Research as the primary methodology.
Action research is simply a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by
participants. Thus, three selected public TEVET institutions were used as a
case study and targeted 150 total samples population in Lusaka. The instruments
used to collect data were questionnaires, focus group, interviews and
observation schedules. Data collected were analysed qualitatively.
study also looked at factors that could affect Sustainable and Quality Project
Training Delivery (SQPTD) either positively or negatively such as political
impact, globalization impact, and economic impact, social and environmental
impacts. The study made known that the Ministry of Science Technology,
Vocational Training and Education Early Child (MESTVTEE) has been neglected and
instigated by a complex set of challenges which include; decentralization of
operations in public TEVET institutions and mismatch between training and needs
of industry. Furthermore, the study revealed that Zambian people need sustainable
curriculum that can answer their current problems. 4
also provided the information that, SQPTD is a philosophy of continuous
improvement which can provide public TEVET institutions with a set of practical
tools for meeting and exceeding present and future TEVET graduates needs, wants
study therefore was an attempt to identify and discuss problems and constraints
responsible for the failure of embracing sustainability as the driving force of
SQPTD. Thus, to overcome these challenges, the study examined a key number of
- Disregard of Sustainable and Quality Project Training Delivery (SQPTD).
- Disregard of labour-market and high unemployment rate among TEVET graduates.
- Criticism of Public TEVET Management Boards performance
- Inadequate funding of TEVET projects
- and lack of accountability in TEVET institutions
- Inadequate of training materials for TEVET students.
[1.] Abed, G.
& S. Gupta. 2002. „The economics of corruption: an overview‟, in Abed, G. & S. Gupta (eds).
Governance, corruption and economic performance, New York: International
[2.] Abuarqub, M
(2009), Islamic imperatives to curb corruption and promote sustainable
Development: Islamic Relief worldwide, Birmingham.
[3.] Achebe, C.
1983. The trouble with Nigeria, London: Heinemann.
C. M.; Lintz, M.N.; and Wayson, W.W. "Observations on Building Public
Confidence in Education." EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS 11
no. 3 (1989): 275-284.
[5.] Adedeji, A.
1990. The African alternative, Addis Ababa: ECA.
P. 2000. Politics and post-colonial theory: African reflections. Routledge:
[7.] Alesina, A.
& Weder, B. 2002. „Do corrupt governments receive less foreign aid?‟ American Economic Review, 92:
A. (2005), Vocationalisation of Secondary Education in Ghana in Lauglo, J and
Maclean, R (eds) Vocationalisation of Secondary Education Revisited,
UNEVOC/World Bank: Springer.
Society for Information Science & Technology, 55(3), 228-237.
Atchoarena, D. ans Delluc, A. (2002), Revisiting Technical and Vocational
Education in sub – Sahara Africa: an Update on Trends, Innovations and
Challenges, UNESCO, IIEP.
Banach, and Cassidy. THE ABC COMPLETE BOOK OF SCHOOL MARKETING. Ray Township,
MI: Author, 1996.
Thomas s., and Snell, Scott A. (1996) Management: Building competitive
advantage, London: Irwin.
[13.] Bennel, P.
(2007), Promoting Livelihood Opportunities for Rural Youth, Paper presented at
Roundtable 3: Generating remunerative livelihood opportunities for rural youth,
IFAD Governing Council 2007.
[14.] Berg, B.L.
(2001). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Boston: Allyn And
Thomas R. (1993) Evaluating social science research, London: Sage.
.G. (1985), Curriculum Development: A Textbook for students, London:
(2003).Strategy Management in the customer driven Organization: London: Wiley.
[18.] Braun , A.
R., J. Jiggins, N. Roling, Van den Berg, H. and P. Snijiders (2005), A Global
Survey and Review of Farmer Field School Experiences. International Livestock
Research Institute, Nairobi.
[19.] Braun, A.
R., and Duveskog, D. (2008), The Farmer Field School Aproach – History, Global
Assessment and Success Stories, Paper commissioned by IFAD (Draft 2008).
[20.] Brink and
Berndt (2004).Customer relation management and customer service, Lansdowne:
C. W. "Image 2000: A Vision for Vocational Education." VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION JOURNAL 66, no. 1 (January 1991): 22-25.
[22.] Brown, S.
et al (2004), Strategic operations Management: Britain library: Norfolf.
[23.] Bunyi, G.
W. (2004), Gender Disparities in Higher Education in Kenya: Nature, Extent and
the Way Forward‟, Paper
presented at the African Symposium Vol. 1, March 2004.
C.H. "Let Our Image Reflect Our Pride." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL
62, no. 8 (November–December 1987): 10.
J. (2007), Le micro enterprise rurale en Afrique: De la survie a la croissance,
le cas rwandais. L‟Harmattan.
B. (2004), The Evolution of Education in Zambia: Book world, Lusaka.
C.M. (1992), Building Classroom Discipline, 4th edn, London: Longman.
l. (1996), study of School – to – Work Reform Initiatives, Washington, DC:
Academy for Educational Development. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (Number
[29.] Cole, G.A.
(1997). Strategic management: Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, London: Letts.
[30.] Cole, G.A.
(1996). Management: Theory and Practice, 5th Edition, London: ELST-Continuum.
on Africa, 2005. Our common interest, http://commissionforafrica.org (visited
12 March 2005).
Commonwealth of Learning (2001). Addressing the challenges of TVET. Vancouver,
[33.] Curry and
Kadasa, N (2002). Focusing on key elements of TQM- evaluation for
sustainability: The TQM magazine, 14 (4), 207-216.
[34.] Dahl, J.
(2003), Evaluating Distance Education in the 21st Century, Distance Education
Report, 7(8): 4 -5.
[35.] Dale H.
Besterfield et.al (2003) Total quality management: Pearson Prentice Hall,
George S., Reibstein, David, J., and Gunther, Robert E. (Eds), (1997). Wharton
on Dynamic competitive strategy, New Jersey: Wiley.
Norman K (1970) the research act: A theoretical Introduction to sociological
methods, Chicago: Aldine.
[38.] De Wever,
B., Schellens, T., Valcke, M., & Van Keer, H. (2006). Content analysis
[39.] East African
Standard (2002), Financial Standard, Education Survey, 6 August, Nairobi:
Standard Newspaper Limited.
Effectiveness for exploring cognitive behaviours. Journal of the American
Society for Information Science, 51(8), 734-744.
[41.] Evans, R.,
Joel and Berman, B. (1990). Marketing. 4th edition, New York, Maxwell
(2007), Getting started! Running a junior farmer field and life school.
FAO/WFP, Rome, ltaly.
F. (2005), Poverty reduction, decent work, and the skills it takes or: towards
correcting a partial view of training needs in African development.
F. (2002), unpublished plenary discussion on the draft of the World Bank‟s Vocational Skills Development in Sub-
Saharan Africa: Synthesis of regional review. Edinburg University, September
[45.] Fien J. et
al. (2009). Work, Learning and Sustainable Development: Opportunities and
Challenges. Dordrech: Springer.
[46.] Francis B.
and Skelton. C. (2010), Investigating Gender: Contemporary perspective in
[47.] Freire, P.
(2000), Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 30th anniversary edition, Continuum, New
[48.] Foster, A.
(2004). A nonlinear model of information-seeking behaviour. Journal of the
F. 2005. “Measuring the immeasurable: Boundaries and functions of (Macro)
corruption indexes”, in F. Galtung & C. Sampford (eds). Measuring
corruption, London: Ashgat.
[50.] Gay. L. R.
(1996), Education Research: Competencies for Analysis and Application, 5th Ed,
New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
M., and Jones, G.R. (2006), Contemporary Management, creating value in
organizations 4th Edition: Mc Graw Hill Irwin, Boston.
B.N., (2008), Scientic Method and Social Research: Sterling, Dehi-110020.
[53.] Godfrey B.
and Charles J. (2002). Educational planning and Management in small States
Concepts and Experiences: Published by the Commonwealth Secretariat. London
SW1Y 5 HX, United Kingdom.
H and Roth, C., (2008), Combating corruption in Kosovo: UNDP Kosovo, Peyton
place 14, pristine.
T., (2008), Management Concepts and Practices 5th Edition: Pearson Education
[56.] Hanlon, J.
1991, Mozambique: who calls the shots“, Oxford: James Currey.
[57.] Hanlon, J.
1996, Peace without profit: how the IMF blocks rebuilding in Mozambique,
Oxford: James Currey
[58.] Hanlon, J.
2002. ‟Bank corruption
becomes a site of struggle in Mozambique‟,
Review of African Political Economy, 29(91): 53-72.
[59.] Hanlon, J.
2004.‟Do donors promote corruption? the case
of Mozambique‟ Third World Quarterly, 25(4): 747-763.
[60.] Harsch, E.
1993. „Accumulators and democrats: Challenging state corruption in Africa‟,
The Journal of Modern Africa Studies, 31(1): 31-48.
Hollenbeck, K. (1996), School – to – Work Programs to facilitate youth
employment and Learning, Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment
Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service Number 394 046)
[62.] Hope, K.
2000. Corruption and development in Africa, in K. Hope & B. Chikulo (Eds.),
Corruption and development in Africa: Lessons from country case studies,
J., and Hussey R. (1997) Business research: A practical guide for undergraduate
and postgraduate students, Hampshire: Palgrave.
(2008), Gash Sustainable Livelihoods Regeneration Project – Community
Development and Capacity Building Component: Assessment of the Capacity
Building Interventions and the Animal Health Agents.
(2007), Republicque du Mali, E‟valuation du
programme de pays Rapport NO. 1905 – ML.
(2005) UWESO Development, 2000 – 2005 – Program Completion Evaluation Report.
Information and communication University Study Manual (2012); Introduction to
Microeconomics: School of Humanities Department of Economics.
[68.] James A.
F.Stoner et.al (2007) Management: Pearson Prentice Hall India
[69.] Jobber, D.
(2004). Principles and practice of marketing, 4th edition, London: Mc Graw Hill
M. 2004. The AAF-SAP: first step on the African path to sustainable human
development, in B. Onimode, et.al African development and governance strategies
in the 21st century, London: Zed Books.
[71.] Keefer, P
& Knack, S. 1995. „Institutions and economic performance: cross-country
tests using alternative institutional measures‟, Economics
& Politics, 7: 207-227).
B.W. (1996), Promotion of Equal Access of Girls and Women to Technical and
Vocational Education, Paris: UNESCO.
B.W. (1995), Technical and Vocational Education in Africa: A Synthesis of Case
Studies, Dakar: UNESCO.
B.W. (2001), Science, Technology and Development, Paper presented to the Third
World Studies (ATWS) Kenya Chapter Conference held at Egerton University,
Kenya, 17 – 19 September 2001.
Joe L. Toil and Trouble: Good Work, Smart Workers, and the Integration of Academic
and Vocational Education. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. (1995)
Joe L. How Do We Tell the Workers? The Socio-Economic Foundations of Work and
Vocational Education. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. (1999)
[77.] King, E.M.
and Hill, M.A. (1997), Attitudes of Trainees and Trainers Towards the 8 – 4 – 4
Secondary Schools‟ Power Mechanics Subject in Kenya
[78.] King, K.,
McGrath, S. and Rose, P. (2007) Beyond the basics: Educating and training out
of poverty, International Journal of Educational Development 27, 349 – 357.
[79.] King, K.,
and Palmer R. (2006), Skills Development and Poverty Reduction: The State of
the Art. Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh.
[80.] Klasen, S.
(2002), Insert of the Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro – poor Growth? Munich:
University of Munich, Department of Economics.
[81.] Kotler, P.
(1999). Marketing: How to create win and dominate markets, London: FP-Free
[82.] Kotler, P.
(2003). Marketing Management, 11th edition, London: Prentice hall.
[83.] Kotler, P.
(2003). Marketing Management, 11th edition, London: Prentice hall.
J.K. (2007), Learners‟ Perception of Technical and Vocational
Education in Kenya: A Case Study of Nakuru District, M. Phil Thesis; Moi
Jon; Maclean, Rupert (Eds.) "Vocationalisation of Secondary Education
Revisited". Series: Technical and Vocational Education and Training:
Issues, Concerns and Prospects , Vol. 1. Springer. (2005)
[86.] Lee, K. W.
(2006), Effectiveness of government‟s occupational
skills development strategies for small – and medium – scale enterprises: A
case study of Korea, international Journal of Educational Development 26 (2006)
278 – 294.
M.E., Jamison, D.T. and Lau, L.J. (1980), “Farmer education and farm
efficiency”. In: Economic Development and cultural Change, 29, 37 – 76.
M. (2010), Good Governance for Ombudsman and Anti corruption: CAFRA, Tangier,
[89.] Mayoux, L.
(2005), Learning and Decent Work for All: new directions in training and
education for pro – poor growth InFocus Programme on Skills, Knowledge and
Employability, ILO: Geneva.
P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research,
1(2). Retrieved July 28, 2008, from
S. (2005), The Challenge of Rural Skills Development. Debates in Skills
Development, Paper 10, Working Group FOR International Cooperation in Skills
Development. ILO/NORRAG/SDC: Geneva.
B. 2004. „What do African donor-sponsored anti-corruption programs teach us
about international development in Africa?‟ Social Policy
and Administration, 38(4): 320-345.
[93.] Miles, M.,
& Huber man, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Minichiello, V., Aroni, R., Timewell, E., & Alexander, L. (1990). In-Depth
of Science Technology and Vocational Training: March 2005 -2012 Newsletters:
of Science Technology and Vocational Training: March 2005 Newsletters: Zambia.
of Science Technology and Vocational Training: September 2005 Newsletters:
of Science Technology and Vocational Training: September 2006 Newsletters:
of Science Technology and Vocational: March 2007 Newsletters: Zambia.
of Science Technology and Vocational Training: January 2008 OAG -Newsletters:
of Science Technology and Vocational Training: March 2008 Newsletters: Zambia.
of Science Technology and Vocational Training: March 2009 Newsletters: Zambia.
[103.] Moses O.
Oketch (2006). School of Lifelong Education and International Development
Institute of Education: University of London.
M. (2002), Overcoming Crisis: Destiny Image, Bahamas. Allen, B., & Reser,
D. (1990). Content analysis in library and information science
M., (2005), Understanding your potential: Destiny, Bahamas.
J.C.S. (2001), Business, Technical and Vocational Education and Training
(BTVET) as a Catalyst for Development in Africa; in The Status and Challenges
of Business, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (BTVET) in Uganda
(10 – 13) December 2001) Country report; Uganda.
B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies
Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine.
H.-F., & Shannon, S.E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content
Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288.
Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
[112.] Ndulo, M.
2003. „The democratization process and structural adjustment in Africa‟,
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 10: 315-368.
Neuendorf, K.A. (2002). The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
P.J., and Trussell, S.T. "The Marketing of Vocational Education."
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November–December 1987): 31-32.
(2008). more Than Just Jobs: Workforce Development in a skills Based economy.
P.O. (1997), Technical and Vocational Education and Training Policy in Kenya:
Under the Sun or in the Shade? Jua Kali in African Countries, Berlin: UNEVOC/UNESCO.
P.O. (2001), Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Kenya, Paper
presented on the sub – regional workshop on the theme Promotion and Reform of
Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Africa, Kampala.
B. 2004. Mobilization for the implementation of alternative development
paradigms in 21st century, in B. Onimode, et. al African development and
governance strategies in the 21st century, London: Zed Books.
[119.] Op, de
Beke, A. 2000. Anticorruption initiatives of the IMF. Joint ADB/OECD
publication. Manila. http://www.oecd.org/document/28/0,2340,fr_2649_37447_1947036_1_1_1_37447,00.html
(visited 14 March 2005)
R. (2007) Skills for work? From skills development to decent livelihoods in Ghana‟s
rural informal economy. International journal of Education Development 27
M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA:
P. (1966). Quoted in Hélène Parmelin, “Truth,” In Picasso Says. London: Allen
& Unwin (trans. 1969).
Michael E. (1980). Competitive strategy. Techniques for analyzing industries
and competitors, London: FP Free Press.
Michael E. (2004). Competitive Advantage. Creating and sustaining superior
performance, London: FP Free Press.
L. (2000). Time-line interviews and inductive content analysis: Their
L. (1991). Users‟ Criteria for Evaluation in Multimedia
Information Seeking and Use Situations. Ph.D. dissertation, Syracuse
Schilling, J. (2006). On the pragmatics of qualitative assessment: Designing
the process for content analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment,
[128.] Smith, D.
„Kinship and corruption in contemporary Nigeria‟, Ethnos, 66(3):
H.W. (1975). Strategies of Social Research: The Methodological Imagination.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Diane Lindsey CAREER ACADEMY TOOLKIT. Raleigh, North Carolina: Bright Futures
G. Lipsey e.tal (2004) Economic; Oxford university press inl. New York.
[132.] Ries, E.
"To 'V' or Not to 'V': for Many the Word 'Vocational' Doesn't Work."
TECHNIQUES 72, no. 8 (November–December 1997): 32-36.
[133.] Ries, A.,
and Trout, J. THE 22 IMMUTABLE LAWS OF MARKETING. New York: HarperCollins
[134.] Riley, S.
2000. „Western politics and African realities: the new anti-corruption agenda‟,
in K. Hope & B. Chikulo (eds). Corruption and development in Africa:
lessons from country case studies, London: Macmillan.
S.P., and Couter, M. (2007), Management 9th Edition: Pearson Prentice Hall, New
J. (2003). Skills training strategies to combat worst forms of child labour in
formal economy: Ghana country study. Marseilles, France: International
Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC).
L., et al (2002), Boys literacies and schooling: library of Congress Cataloging
in publication Data.
R. (2000), Beyond Political Rhetoric: ZPC, Lusaka.
M., Lewis, P., and Thorn hill, A. (2003). Research methods for business
students, 3rd edition, London: FT Prentice Hall.
D. "Image Control: Teachers and Staff Have the Power to Shape Positive
Thinking." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 68, no. 1 (January 1993): 26-27.
C.J. "How to Market Vocational Education." CURRICULUM REVIEW
(November 1989): 3-5
Silberman, H.F. "Improving the Status of High School Vocational
Education." EDUCATIONAL HORIZONS 65, no. 1 (Fall 1986): 5-9.
S.E. (2012), WiseGeek: Conjecture Corporation.
J. (2007), Introducing elearning as a strategy to increase Enrolment in TVET,
Paper presented at the 1st African UNESCO – UNEVOC Summit on Access and
Inclusion for TVET in Africa through New ICT – Based Solutions, 28 – 30 May,
Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.
[145.] Stan lake‟s
SJ Grant (2006); Introductory Economics: Person Education Limited, Inc. New
P. Robbin et .al (2007) Management: Pearson Education, Inc.New Jersey
Carl W., and Deimler, Michael S. (2006). The Boston consulting group on
strategy: Classic concepts and new perspectives, 2nd Edition, New Jersey:
D. (1997). Marketing: A case study approach, 2nd edition, London: Continuum.
F. et al (2009), Management 6th Edition: Pearson Education, Delhi 110092,
[150.] Stuart .W
.R. et al (2005); Business Economics: Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate.
J.R. (2000), learning for life, Work and the Future Stimulating Reforms in
Southern Africa through Sub – regional Cooperation, Workshop Paper,
UNEVOC/UNESCO/Ministry of Education, Botswana.
W.A. and Wright, G.H., (2003), a longitudinal study of TQM implementation:
factors influencing success and failure, Omega, 31, 97 – 111.
V.R. (2012), Educational Thought and Practice: Sterling, New Delhi 110092, and
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: April 2003 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: September 2005 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: December 2006 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: April 2009 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: March 2009 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: March 2010 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: March 2011 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: December 2011 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: March 2012 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: September 2007 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: December 2008 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: April 2010 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: March 2010 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: March 2010 Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: March 2013Newsletters:
Education and Vocational Entrepreneurship Training: April 2013 Newsletters:
[170.] Tesch, R.
(1990). Qualitative Research: Analysis Types & Software Tools. Bristol, PA:
Thiagarajan, .T. and Zairi, M., (2001), A proposed model of TQM implementation
based on an empirical study of Malaysian industry, International Journal of
Quality & Reliability management, 19 (5), 508 – 523.
Hamagan (2008). Management Concept and Practices: Pearson Education Ltd,
F.T. "Let's Get Serious about Image-Building." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November–December 1987): 11.
(2004) Synthesis report: improving access, equity and relevance in technical
vocational education and training (TVET). Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCO.
(2000), learning for Life, Work and Future: Stimulating Reform in Southern
Africa through Sub regional Co – operation, Gaborone: UNESCO.
Conference for Sustainable Development. 2010. United Nations Conference for
Sustainable Development Rio 20. Available FROM Http://WWW.
Uncsd2010.org/index.php?option= com_content&id=91: the- history-
07 February 2011).
n.d.United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Htt://WWW.unece.org/env/pp/
(Accessed 16 February 2011)
[178.] UNESCO –
ILO (2002), Technical and Vocational Education and Training for the Twenty –
first Century, UNESCO and ILO Recommendations.
[179.] UNESCO –
UNEVOC (2006), Participation in formal technical and vocational education and
training programmes worldwide: an initial stastical study. Bonn, Germany.
UNESCO – UNEVOC International centre for technical and vocational education and
Institute for Statistics (2007), Participation in Formal Technical and
Vocational Education and Training Programmes Worldwide – An Initial Stastical
Study. Montreal, Canada.
UNESCO.2010.Education for sustainable development (ESD).
HTTP//WWW.unesco.org/en/esd/ (January 2011)
Anti-corruption Resource Centre, 2005. Anti-corruption projects by agency
http://www.u4.no/projects/agency.cfm (visited 31 March 2005).
General Accounting Office, 2004. Foreign assistance. US anticorruption programs
in sub-Saharan Africa will require time and commitment, Report to the
subcommittee on African Affairs, committee on foreign relations, US Senate,
GAO-04-506, pp. i-67.
[184.] Van den
Berg, H. (2004). IPM Farmer Schools: A synthesis of 25 impact evaluations.
Wageningen. University. 53 pp.
[185.] Van Der
Wieele, T. and Brown, A., (2002), Quality management over a decade: A
longitudinal study, International Journal of Quality & Reliability
management, 19(5), 508 – 523.
[186.] Watter J.
Wessels 2006; Economic; Library of Congress Cataloging in – publication Data.
R.P. (1990). Basic Content Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
"What Do People Think of Us?" TECHNIQUES 72, no. 6 (September 1997):
14-15.Asian Academy Of Film & Television
R., et, al (2004), TQM: why it will again become a top management issue,
International Journal, 6(4), 314 – 330.
Wolfensohn, J. 2000. Letter to B. Nelson, US General Accounting Office, 16
March. Washington, DC.
K.C., (2000), Assessment of TQM implementation: Benchmarking Singapore‟s
productivity leaders, Business Process Management Journal, 5(4), 314 – 330.
Bank, FAO, IFAD (2008), Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook. Washington DC. The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The World Bank.
Bank, 2005, “Ten things you never knew about the World Bank in Africa‟,
http://www.worldbank.org/tenthings/AFR/1-afr.htm (visited 1 April 2005).
Bank (2004), Skills development in Sub – Saharan Africa. World Bank, Washington
Bank (2000), Engendering Development Though Gender Equality in Rights Resources
and Voice. Washington DC: World Bank.
Bank (2000), Attacking Poverty: World Development Report 2000 – 2001 Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
S.M. and Aspinwall, E., (2000a), A conceptual framework for TQM implementation
for SMEs, the TQM magazine, 12(1), 31 – 36.
S.M. and Aspinwall, E., (2000b), TQM implementation issues: review and case
study, International Journal of operations and production management, 20(6),
634 – 655.
S.M. and Aspinwall, E., (2001), Case studies on the implementation of TQM in
the UK automotive SMEs, International Journal of Quality & Reliability
Management, 18(7), 722 – 743.
[200.] Zairi, M.
& Liburd, I. M., (2001), TQM sustainability – a roadmap for creating
competitive advantage, Integrated Management, Proceedings of the 6th
International conference on ISO 9000 & TQM, Paisely, Ayr, Scotland, 17 – 19
April, 452 – 461 (Hong Kong Baptist university press) ISBN 962 – 86107 -2 – 4.
M., (2002), Beyond TQM implementation: the new paradigm of TQM sustainability,
Total Quality management, 13(8), 1161 – 1172.