The Double Burden of TB and HIV Co-Infection in Sub Saharan Africa

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Authors : Abdu Abdullahi Adamu


Tuberculosis as a disease have been with human for several thousands of years now and earliest evidence of the disease is said to have been found in a Bison dating back 17,000 years. However, the bacillus causing the disease was identified by Robert Koch in 1882.

Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; an aerobic bacillus [1]. It has very high lipid content in its cell wall and this is responsible for its unique clinical features [1]. The M. tuberculosis complex includes five species: M. tuberculosis, M. bovis (and bacillus Calmette-Guérin), M. canetti, M. africanum, and M. microti. Within the species complex, most human disease is due to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. Important to note is M. bovis; it accounts for a small fraction of human TB cases and is naturally resistant to the drug pyrazinamide [1]


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