Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical Incident Reporting Among Healthcare Professionals: A Study of Midigo Health Centre IV
Introduction: Medical incident reporting is a key
tool for improving patient safety in healthcare, hence improved quality of
care. The better the knowledge, attitude and practice of this concept, the
better the quality of care. The perceived knowledge, attitude and practice are
still low in many Uganda healthcare facilities. Many of the healthcare
providers have, therefore, limited their scope to maternal death audit and
reporting or perinatal death reporting and to a greater extent Adverse Event
Following Immunization (AEFI). This problem of perceived low knowledge,
attitude and practice of incident reporting is coupled with the poor
institutional culture to persistently and inadequate support healthcare
professionals to report incidents. Medical incident reporting is, therefore,
the single most powerful tool for developing and maintaining an awareness of
risks in healthcare practice, hence a cornerstone to improved patient safety
and improved quality of service delivery.
Objectives: The study objectives were as follow;
to assess the level of knowledge about medical incident reporting among
healthcare professionals, by April, 2016 and determine their attitude towards
medical incident reporting. The researcher also set out to ascertain the
practice and the extent to which medical incident reporting is practiced in
Midigo Health Centre IV, as well as, establishing the factors affecting medical
incident reporting in the said healthcare facility.
Methods: The study was a cross sectional study
of knowledge, attitude and practice of medical incident reporting among
Healthcare Professionals in Midigo health centre IV. It was both qualitative
and quantitative; with a sample of 44healthcare professionals interviewed using
structured questionnaires. The questionnaire was pre-tested. Analysis of result
was done using computer packages called Statistical Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS) and Microsoft excel. Ethical considerations in research were observed.
Results: The cadre of the respondents were;
Medical officers – 4.5%, Clinical officers – 6.8%, Nurses – 43.2%, Midwives –
11.4%, Theatre staffs – 9.1%, Laboratory staffs – 6.8% and other staffs –
18.2%. The response rate was 100%. The level of knowledge about medical
incident reporting among healthcare professionals in Midigo HC IV was at 84.1%,
by April 2016. Much as there was no statistical significance between cadre of
staffs and extent of knowledge, p-value >0.39, the only cadres that had
excellent knowledge on medical incident reporting were nurses (75%) and
clinical officers (25%). The rest of the staffs either had average knowledge or
fair knowledge or no knowledge at all. The healthcare professionals had strong
positive attitude towards medical incident reporting and this was at 97.7%. By
April, 2016, the practice of medical incident reporting was at 72.6% with the
majority of these respondents (up to 50%), having participated in reporting
three times or more for the last 5years. The major factors that facilitated the
respondents to report were; Strong positive feeling to participate and improve
patient safety and respondents were knowledgeable (educated) about medical
incident reporting. Other minor factors like ability of respondents to get
feedback on reported incidents and strong institutional culture of reporting
did not make strong contribution towards the practice of reporting. However,
the major barriers were; respondents didn’t know where and how to report,
coupled with weak institutional culture of reporting incidents. Surprisingly,
fear of consequence of reporting did not in any way hinder any respondent from
reporting. In other words, it was not a reason for them not to participate in
medical incident reporting.
Conclusion: Medical incident reporting still
remains a key tool in improving patient safety. The greater the practice of
reporting, the better; as evident by the strong positive feeling towards
medical incident reporting, in this research finding. Educating professionals
on incident reporting and strong positive individual feeling to improve safety
have remained the major factors facilitating medical incident reporting.
Likewise, lack of knowledge on where and how to report, coupled with weak
institutional culture of reporting have remained the major barriers to
practicing medical incident reporting.
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