Background: Pakistan as like
developing countries has trained nurses for to meet their health care needs and
achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Unfortunately these nurses are
leaving the country for better opportunities to developed countries.
Objective: The study aims
to identify the factors involved in Pakistani nurses moving abroad and to draw together
recommendations to retain nurses from the respondents through a questionnaire- based
study in a selected government and private tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan
Procedure: Descriptive survey
study was conducted in six tertiary care teaching hospitals of Karachi Pakistan.
A sample of 307 nurses was taken randomly by lottery technique in six selected government
and private hospitals which were demographically situated in different places in
Karachi and serves a diversity of population.
Results: The results showed
that low salary package, poor image of the nurse, and poor working conditions were
the major reasons why nurses would like to leave the country and work or migrate
abroad. The United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America are the most
popular countries where Pakistani nurses would like to work and migrate.
Conclusion: The reasons for
Pakistani nurses moving abroad are linked to the fulfillment of basic human needs,
self esteem, safety and security needs. These issues are similar to the reasons
of nurses in other source countries.
Keywords: Abroad, Infant
mortality rate (IMR), Migration, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),
[1.] Aiken, L.H., Buchan, J., Sochalski, J., Nicholas, B. & Powell,
M. (2004). Trends in International Nurse
Migration. Health Affairs. 23 (3), 69-77.
[2.] Boucher, A., & Cerna, L. (2014).
Current policy trends in skilled immigration policy. International Migration, 52(3), 21-25.
[3.] Buchan, J., Jobanputra, R., Gough, P., & Hutt, R. (2005). Internationally
recruited nurses in London: Profile and implications for policy. Kings
[4.] Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2012).
Globalization, brain drain, and development. Journal
of Economic Literature, 681-730.
[5.] Fang, Z.Z. (2007). Potential
of China in global nurse migration. Health Services Research. Retrieved August
29, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/ articles/mi_m4149/is_3_42/ai_n27260232/pg_1?tag=artBody;col1
[6.] Gay, L.R. & Diehl, P. L. (1992). Research
methods for business and management. New
[7.] Ghaffar, A. (2007). Job satisfaction among nurses in Pakistan.
Unpublished Masters thesis, submitted to the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
L. (2014, July). The International Migration of Nurses and Doctors into Healthcare
Systems: A Look into the Philippine Case. In XVIII
ISA World Congress of Sociology (July 13-19, 2014). Isaconf.
[9.] Lorenzo, M., Galvez-Tan, J., Icamina, K., & Javier, L. (2007). Nurse Migration from a Source Country Perspective: Philippine
Country Case Study. HSR, 42(3):1406-1418.
[10.] Mustafa, M. (2005). Barriers to higher education in Nursing: Sindh,
Pakistan. Unpublished Masters thesis, submitted to the Aga Khan University,
[11.] Nasreen, G. (2007). Nursing
- a thankless profession.
Retrieved July 15, 2007, from http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/jul2007-weekly/you-24-07-2007/index.html
[12.] National Institute of Pakistan Studies
(2014). Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey
2012-13. Retrieved June 16, 2014 from http://www.nips.org.pk/abstract_files/Priliminary%20Report%20Final.pdf
F. M. (2014). Neighbourhood effects as indirect effects: Evidence from a Dutch case
study on the significance of neighbourhood for employment trajectories. International Journal of Urban and Regional
Research, 38(6), 2042-2059.
[14.] Pittman, P., Aiken, L.H., & Buchan,
J. (2007). International Migration of Nurses. Health Services Research, 42 (3), pp. 1275-1280.
[15.] Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2003).
Nursing Research: Principles and Methods.
(7th ed.). London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
B. F., Hinthong, W., Jimba, M., & Yasuoka, J. (2014). Interprofessional Education
for Whom?—Challenges and Lessons Learned from Its Implementation in Developed Countries
and Their Application to Developing Countries: A Systematic Review. PloS one, 9(5), e96724.
[17.] Thomas, P. (2006). The international migration of Indian nurses: International
Nursing Review 53, 277–283.
[18.] U.S. Census Bureau, International Database (2014). Retrieved April 16,
2015, from http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php
K., & Lindsay, D. (2004). The nurse practitioner role in Fiji: results of an
impact study. Contemporary nurse, 16(1-2), 83-91. Retrieved July
11, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.5172/conu.16.1-2.83#.VUMSPdKqqko
[20.] World Health Organization. (2013).
Millennium Development Goals Report. Retrieved
April 16, 2014, from http://www.undp.org/content/dam/pakistan/docs/MDGs/MDG2013