Comparison of Patients’ Self-Diagnosis of Malaria and their Test Results from Medical Laboratory Analysis: The Case of Limbe Regional Hospital

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.04.02.Art027

Authors : Achankeng Nkemasong Simon


Malaria remains one of the most wild spread infectious diseases of humankind, threatening approximately half the world’s population and causing debilitating illness in more than 216 million people morbidity and mortality is particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is prevalent throughout Cameroon with transmission being affected by climate and geography, increased drug resistance and the lack of adequate vector control measles. It accounts for 40 to 45% of medical consultations, 57% of hospitalization days and 40% of mortality among children below 5 years. The objective of this study wee to determine the proportion of patients attending Limbe Regional Hospital whose self- diagnosis of malaria is confirm with Laboratory Analysis. A questionnaire was administered to the participants in a cross-section study. The respondent’s consent was sought. Data was analyzed manually for chi square. The level of significant was set at p>0.05. in this study, 65.7% of the 105 participants successfully self diagnosed malaria. Also, 71.4% of the studied participants knew the true cause of malaria to be plasmodium parasite .The commonest signs and symptoms as mentioned by the respondent were as follows : 33(31.4%) increased by body temperature , 23(21.9%) headache ,12(11.429%)body pains .12(11.4%) sweating and 25(23.8%) gave other symptoms .The level of education attained by respondents greatly influenced their ability to self-diagnosed malaria and to know the true cause of malaria (x2 calculated =14.02, x2 Tabulated = 5.99, P < 0.05).Competent authorities need to intensify and implement proper health education messages on the risk factors of malaria in order to improve upon the understanding of disease in the nation.


[1.] Amino R, Thiberge S, Martin B et al. quantitative imaging of Plasmodium transmission from mosquito to mammal. Nat Med. Feb (2006); 12(2): 220-224.

[2.] Aikins MK,Pickering H, Greenwood BM (1994). Attitudes to malaria, traditional practices and bed nets (mosquito nets) as vector control measures: a comparative study in five West African Countries. J.Trop. Med Hyg. 97:81-86.

[3.] Agyepong, I.A. (1992) Malaria: Ethnomedical Perceptions and Practice in an Adangbe Farming Community and Implications for Control. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35(2): 131-137.

[4.] Ashley M. Vaughan, Ahmed S.I. Aly, Stefan H.I Kappe. Malaria parasite pre-erythrocytic stage infection: Gliding and Hiding Cell Host Microbe. II September (2008); 4(3): 209-218.

[5.] Breman, Joel G. M. S. Alilio, and A. Mills. (2004). “Conquering the Intolerable Burden of malaria: What’s New, What’s Needed: A Summary American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71 (Suppl 2): 1-15.

[6.] Brain M. Greenwood, David A. Fidock, Denis E. Kyle, Stefan H.I. Kappe, Pedro L. Alonso, Frank H. Collins, Patrick E. Duffy. Malaria: progress, perils and prospects for eradication J. Clin. Invest. (2008) 118:1266-1276. Doi: 10.1172/JC133996.

[7.] Centers for Diseases control (CDC). (2006). “Schema of the life cycle of malaria. Accessed 2007 Feb 9.

[8.] Cecil textbook of medicine, XIX edn (1992). Philadelphia, USA: W.B. Saunders Co,pp. 16901692.

[9.] Carolina Barillas-Mury, Sanjeev Kumar. Plasmodium mosquito intereactions: a tale of dangerous liaisons. Cellular Microbiology (2005); 7(11):1539-1445.

[10.] Dauda Waiswa Batega. (2004). Knowledge attitudes and practices about malaria treatment and prevention in Uganda. Health Communication Partnership based at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of. Public Health/Centre for Communication Programs.

[11.] Dickson Shey Nsagha I, Anna Longdoh Njunda, Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga, Jules Clement Bguedia Assob, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Sarah Mboshi Nsagha, and Alfred Kongnyu Njamnshi (2011). Knowledge and practices relating to malaria: Signs and symptoms, causes and prevention; Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology Vol. 3(6).pp. 294-300, June 2011.

[12.] Eric A. Achidi, Tobias O Apinjoh, Judith K Anchang-Kimbi, Regina N Mugri, Andre N Ngwai, and Clarisse N Yafi (2012). Severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children from three regions and three ethnic groups in Cameroon: prospective study. Achidi et al. malaria Journal 2012. 11:215.

[13.] Einterz EM (2003). Perceptions of malaria transmission, presentation and management in northern Cameroon. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97: 51-51.

[14.] Edmondson Jane. (2001) page 24. Malaria and Poverty: Opportunities to Address Malaria through Debt Relief and Poverty Reduction Strategies; Working document prepare by Malaria Consortium.Pg.24.

[15.] Foster S(1995). Treatment of malaria outside the formal health services. J Trop.Med.Hyg. 98:29-34.

[16.] Greenberg AE, Ntumbanzondo CM, Malaria L, Howell J, Davachi F (1989). Hospital-based Surveillance of malaria-related Pediatric morbidity and mortality in Kinshasa, Zaire. WHO Bull. 67:89-196.

[17.] Global Malaria Action Plan (2011). Available at http://www.rollbackmalaria.or/gmap and

Source: Malaria Prevalence Model: I. Kleinschmidt (2001). An empirical malaria distribution map for West Africa. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6:779-786. Topographical data.

[18.] Handrickse RG; Hasan AH; Olumide LO and Akinkunmi A. (1971). Malaria in early childhood. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (1971); 65:1-20.

[19.] Heather M Ferguson, Andrew F Read, Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts. Malaria Journal (2004); 3:12doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-3.

[20.] Isaac Keango Nyamongo. (1998) lay people’s responses to illness: An Ethnographic study of anti-malaria behavior among the Abagusii of Southwestern Kenya.


[21.] Ikome LE, Ndamukong KJ, Kimbi H (2002) Prevalence and case-control study of cerebral malaria in Limbe of the South West Cameroon. Afr J Health Sci 9:61-67.

[22.] Jackson, L.C. (1985) malaria in Liberian children and mothers: Biocultural Perceptions of illness Vs. clinical Evidence of Disease. Social Science and Medicine, Vol 20(12): 1281-1287.

[23.] Jake Baum, Dave Richard, Julie Heale et al. a conserved Molecular Motor Drives Cell Invasion and Gliding Motility across Malaria Life Cycle Stages and Other Apicomplexan Parasites. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Febraury (2006); 281:5197-5208.

[24.] Kalisa, M. W. (1997). A study of malaria control policy in Hoima district (Unpublished). Ministry of Gender and Community Development, Kampala, Uganda. J. Trop Med. Hyg. 97:81-86.

[25.] Kun JF, Mission MA,Lell B, Sovric M, Knoop H, et al. (2002) New emerging Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in children during the transition phase from asymptomatic parasitemia to malaria. AM J Trop Med HYG 66:653-658.

[26.] Kimbi HK, Awah NW, Ndamukong KJ, Mbuh JV (2005) Malaria infection and its consequences in school children. East Afr Med J 83:92-97.

[27.] Kebaier C, Voza T, Vanderberg J. Kinetics of Mosquito-Injected Plasmodium Sporozoites in Mice: Fewer Sporozoites Are Injected into Sporozoite-Immunised Mice. Plos Pathog (2009); 5(4): e1000399.

[28.] Langhorne J, Ndungu FM, Sponaas A, Marsh K: Immunity to malaria: more questions than answers, Nat Immunol (2008), 9:725-732.

[29.] Laurence Floren, Michael P. Washburn, J. Dale Raine et al. a proteomic view of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle Nature October (2002); 419:520-526.

[30.] Lucy Megumi Yamauchi, Alida Coppi, Georges Snounou, Photini Sinnis. Plasmodium sporozoites trickle out of the injection site. Cell Microbiol. 1 May (2007); 9(5):1215 – 1222.

[31.] Malanet P. Speilman A, Sachs J: (2004). The malaria gap. Am J Trop Med Hyg (2004), 71:141 146

[32.] Ministère de la Santé Publique (2007). Plan stratégie nationale de la lute contre le paludisme au Cameoun. Pp 1- 134.

[33.] Michael F Good, Denise L Doolan. Malaria’s journal through the lymph node. Nature Medicine (2007); 13:1023-1024.

[34.] Miguel Prudêncio, Ana Rodriguez, Maria M. Mota. The silent path to thousands of merozoites: the Plasmodium liver stage. Nature Reviews Microbiology (2006); 4:849-856.

[35.] Njama D, Dorsey G, et’al (2003). Urban malaria: primary caregivers’ knowledge, attitudes, practices and predicators of malaria incidence in a cohort of Uganda children. In Trop Med and Int Health. Vol 8 of No 8 pp: 685-692.

[36.] Olivier Silvie, Maria M Nota, Kai Matuschewski, Miguel Prudencio. Interactions of the malaria parasite and its mammalian host. Current Opinion in Microbiology (2008); 11:352-359.

[37.] Quakyi AI, Leke RG, Befidi-Mengue R, Tsafack M, Bomba-Nkolo D, Manga, L, Tchinda V, Njeugue E, Kouontchou S, Fogako J, Nyonglema P, Harun LT, Djokam R, Sama G, Eno A, Megnekou R, Metenou S, Ndoutse L, Same-Ekobe A, Alake G, Meli J, Ngu J, Tietche F, Lohoue J, Mvondo, J.L, Wansi E, Leke R, Folefack A, Bigoga J, Bomba-Nkolo C, Titanji V, Walker-Abbey A, Hickey AM, Johnson AH, and Taylor, DW. (2000); The Epidemiology of Plasmoium falciparum in two Cameroonian villages: Simbok and Etoa. American Journal of Tropical Medical and Hygiene. (2000); 5:222-230.

[38.] Quakyi AI; Leke RG; Befidi-Mengue R; Tsafack M; Bomba-Nkolo D; Manga, L; Tchinda V; Njeugue E; Kountchou S; Fogako J; Nyonglema P; Harun LT; Djokam R; Sama G; Eno A; Megnekou R; Metenou S; Ndoutse L; Same-Ekobe A; Alake G; Meli J; Ngu J; Tietche F; Lohoue J; Mvondo, JL; Wansi E; Leke R; Folefack A; Bigoga J; Bomba-Nkolo C; Titanji V; Walker-Abbey A; Hickey AM; Johnson AH; and Taylor DW. The epidemiology of plasmodium falciparum in two Cameroonian villages: Simbok and Etoa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2000); 5:222-230.

[39.] Roll Back Malaria Partnership. (2002). Malaria and children. World Heal Organization Accessed May 2, 2010.

[40.] Snow RW, Guerra CA, Noor AM, Myint HY, Hay SI: The global distribution of clinical episodes of plasmodium faciparum malaria. Nature (2005) , 434:214 – 217.

[41.] Smith DC (1982). The rise and fall of typhomalaria fever. I: origin. J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci, 37:182-220.

[42.] Snow RW, Guerra CA, Abdisalan M; Myint HY, Hay SI, (2005): The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 2005, 343:214-217.

[43.] Samba E; (2001). The malaria burden and Africa. AM J Trop Med Hyg, 64 (1 – 2 Suppl): ii.Preface.

[44.] Sylvia Münter, Benedikt Sabass, Christine Selhuber-Unke et al. plasmodium sporozoite Motility is Modulated by the Turnover of Discrete Adhesion Sites Cell Host and Microbe. December (2009); 6(17):551-562.

[45.] Theresia Nkuo-Akenji, Nelson N. Ntonifor, Maize B. Ndukum. Helen K. Kimbi, Edith L. Abongwa, Armand Nkwescheu, Damain N. Anong, Michael Songmbe, Michael G. Boyo, Keneath N, Ndamukong and Vincent P.K Titanji. (2006). Environmental factors affecting malaria parasite prevalence in rural Bolifamba, South West Cameroon. TN environment (2004). 71:141 146.

[46.] United Nations Statistics Division (2011). Malaria mortality in Cameroon. Available at http:/ Retrieved, ay 11.

[47.] World Health Organization, World Malaria report, Global malaria programme (2011). Geneva World Health Organization Publication; (2011)

[48.] World Economic Forum (2002). Global health initiative. Private sector intervention case example Chad/Cameroon oil pipeline. Using malaria control strategically to improve worker’s health and prevent project delay,pp 1 0 8.

[49.] WHO:World Malaria report, (2011). Global malaria programme. Geneva World Health Organization Publication; (2011)

[50.] World Health Organization. (2002). World Health Report Reducing Risks, Promoting Health Life.Pg 77. Geneva.

[51.] WHO World Malaria Report (2010): Available at