Relationship between Sexual Behaviour/Habits and Occurrence of Lowback Pain among Metal Workers in a South-Eastern Nigeria Community

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.04.02.Art036

Authors : Gabriel O. Ayeni, Okwuoma C Abanobi, Oluwasegun A. Ayeni



Low back pain (LBP) incidence among metal workers is relatively high. This study assessed the sexual habits relationship to LBP among metal workers in Owerri, South-eastern Nigeria.

Study design

A prospective cases-control study design


A surveillance exercise was carried out. A simple random sampling was used to select 50 cases and matched to 50 non-cases from identified cases and noncases. Frequency matching was done. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistics of 2 x 2 contingency table.


Sexual habits such as having multiple sex partners (OR = 0.26, CI = 0.35 – 1.25; p < 0.04), higher sex frequency (OR = 0.73, CI = 0.16 – 3.46; p <0.05), married (OR=1.00, CI=0.446-2.242, p>0.58) were not significantly associated with LBP.


There was no association between higher sex frequency per week, having multiple sex partners or not, married or not married and occurrence of lowback pain. However, the need for further study to determine how well metal workers manage their sexual life and their health was stated, as all sampled metal workers engaged in sexual activities irrespective of their marital status.


[1.] .Aggarwal N, Anand T, Kishore J, Ingle GK. (2013): Low back pain and associated risk factors among undergraduate students of a medical college in Delhi. Educ Health (Abingdon); 26:103_8.

[2.] .Ambler N, de C W, Amanda C., Hill P, Gunary R, Cratchley GD. (2001): Sexual difficulties of Chronic Pain Patients. Clinical Journal of Pain; 17( 2): 138-145

[3.] .Ayeni GO, Morakinyo MO, Olaniyi O, Onigbinde AT, Ayeni OA (2014): Prevalence and Relationship between Analgesic and Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Habit and Occurrence of Lowback Pain amongst Craftsmen in a South-East Nigerian Community. American Journal of Health Research. Special Issue: Supplementary Prescribing in Nigeria: A Needy Concept to Promote Clinical Physiotherapy Practice; 2(1): 45-49.

[4.] .Bener A, Alwash R, Gaber T, and Lovasz G. (2003): Obesity and low back pain. Collegium Antropologicum, 27(1): 95–104.

[5.] .Craft RM., Mogil JS., and. Aloisi AM (2004): “Sex differences in pain and analgesia: the role of gonadal hormones,” European Journal of Pain; 8(5):397–411.

[6.] .Croft PR and Rigby AS (19994): “Socioeconomic influences on back problems in the community in Britain,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 48(2):166–170.

[7.] .Fillingim RB, King C.D, Ribeiro-Dasilva CM, Rahim-illiams B, Riley III JL (2009): Sex, Gender, and Pain: A Review of Recent Clinical and Experimental Findings . Journal of pain; 10 (5):447–485.

[8.] .Hakala P, Rimpelä A, Salminen J.J, Virtanen S.M, and Rimpelä M (2002): “Back, neck, and shoulder pain in Finnish adolescents: national cross sectional surveys,” British Medical Journal: 325(7367):743–745.

[9.] .Harreby M, Kjer J, Hesselsøe G, and Neergaard K. (1986): “Epidemiological aspects and risk factors for low back pain in 38-year-old men and women: a 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children,” European Spine Journal; 5(5): 312–318.

[10.] .Horst (2015): New research shows spinal surgery improves sexual function, reduces low back pain. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; March 24, 2015.

[11.] .Knox J, Orchowski J, Scher DL, Owens BD, Burks R, and Belmont PJ (2011): The incidence of low back pain in active duty United States military service members. Spine, 36(18):1492–1500.

[12.] .Louw Q.A, Morris L.D, and Grimmer-Somers K (2007): The prevalence of low back pain in Africa: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders; 8: 105.

[13.] .McBeth J and Jones K (2007): Epidemiology of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Best Practice and Research, 21(3):403–425.

[14.] .Meerding W.J, IJzelenberg W, Koopmanschap M.A, Severens J.L, and Burdorf A (2005): Health problems lead to considerable productivity loss at work among workers with high physical load jobs. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 58(5):517–523.

[15.] .Mielenz T.J, Devellis R.F, Battie M.C, and Carey T.S. (2011): Stop using the modified work APGAR to measure job satisfaction. Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2011, Article ID 406235, 8 pp.

[16.] .Müller C.F, Monrad T, Biering-Sørensen F, Darre E, Deis A, and Kryger P. (1999): The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble: a 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for selfreported sick-listing caused by low back trouble. Spine 24(15):1562–1570.

[17.] .Nicholas M.K, Linton S.J, Watson P.J, Main C.J., and Decade of the Flags Working Group (2011): Early identification and management of psychological risk factors (“yellow flags”) in patients with low back pain: a reappraisal. Physical Therapy, 91(5):737–753.

[18.] .Ouédraogo D.D, Ouédraogo V, Ouédraogo L.T. et al (2010): Prevalence and factors associated with low back pain among hospital staff in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Médecine Tropicale, 70(3):277–280.

[19.] .Pincus T, Vlaeyen JW, Kendall NA, Von Korff MR, Kalauokalani D.A, and Reis S (2002): Cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychosocial factors in low back pain: directions for the future. Spine, 27(5):E133–E138.

[20.] .Schmidt CO and Kohlmann T. (2005): What do we know about the symptoms of back pain? pidemiological results on prevalence, incidence, progression and risk factors. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb; 143: 292_8.

[21.] .Schneider S, Randoll D, and Buchner M. (2006): Why do women have back pain more than men? A representative prevalence study in the Federal Republic of Germany. Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(8):738–747.

[22.] .Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino-Arjas P, Solovieva S, and Viikari-Juntura E. (2010): The association between obesity and low back pain: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(2):135–154.

[23.] .Shiri R, Solovieva S, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K. et al (2008): The association between obesity and the prevalence of low back pain in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(9):1110–1119.

[24.] .Strine T. W. and Hootman J. M. (2007): US national prevalence and correlates of low back and neck pain among adults. Arthritis Care and Research, 57(4): 656–665.

[25.] .Webb R, Brammah T, Lunt M, Urwin M, Allison T, and Symmons D. (2003): Prevalence and predictors of intense, chronic, and disabling neck and back pain in the UK general population. Spine, 28(11):1195–1202.

[26.] .Wijnhoven H.A.H., de Vet H.C.W, and Picavet H.S.J. (2006): Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is systematically higher in women than in men. Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(8):717–724.