Preventing Obesity In Junior High Schools, Its Consequences And Lessons Learnt

Download Article

Authors : Emmanuel Hakwia Kooma


Objective: To evaluate the factors leading to the prevalence and secular trends for overweight and obese among the adolescents in junior high schools.

Methods: A qualitative study review of literature was conducted on facilitating factors to the prevalence and secular trends, obesity prevention in junior high schools. Theoretical sources of information relevant to obesity (idea-based) were used. Primary, secondary and tertiary sources were used to have a broader overview of obesity. The general approach was a combination of chronological thematic and conceptual concepts. A descriptive analysis of the objectives was done

Results: The obesogenic prenatal environment or the physical form of our community play a vital role and that can also promote obesity in young people through epigenic effects

Conclusion: It was found that high-fat and energy dense diet has tremendously increased in the 21st century while most young population have increasingly lead sedentary lives. The life style of fast foods and little physical activity have increased the prevalence of obesity among school going children, adolescent and adults too. The related obesity and chronic disease risk factors have become major public health concerns. Multilevel model is related to local ecological model on the principal of preventing obesity. Therefore multilevel is a good model to prevent obesity in school. The risk regulations–health behaviour–genetic factors model approach laid a good ground for strategic prevention of obesity and evaluation of multilevel model practices, food intake, production and physical activities.

 Key words: Obesity, Junior high schools, Obesogenic prenatal environment, Multi-level model, Risk regulators-Health behaviour-Genetic factors.


[1] Adams AK, Quinn RA, Prince RJ. Low recognition of childhood overweight and disease risk among Native-American caregivers. Obes Res 2005; 13(1):146-52.

[2] Committee on Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth, McGinnis JM, Gootman JA, Kraak VI, editors. Food marketing to children and youth: threat or opportunity? Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 2006

[3] Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Solet D. Disparities in obesity rates: analysis by ZIP code area. Soc Sci Med 2007; 65(12):2458-63.

[4] Epstein LH, Roemmich JN, Robinson JL, Paluch RA, Winiewicz DD, Fuerch JH, et al. A randomized trial of the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on body mass index in young children. Arch.

[5] http://www.WHO.Int/diet physical activity/publications/facts/obesity/en/.

[6] Accessed March 21, 2008.

[7] Institute of Medicine. Preventing child hood obesity. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2005.

[8] Johnson MS, Figueroa-Colon R, Huang TT, Dwyer JH, Goran MI. Longitudinal changes in body fat in African American and Caucasian children: influence of fasting insulin and insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86(7):3182-7.

[9] Jones A, Bentham G, Foster C, Hills don M, Panter J. Tackling obesities: future choices — obesogenic environments — evidence review. London (GB): Government Office for Science, Foresight Programme; 2007. Accessed March 21, 2008.

[10] Levin BE. Factors promoting and ameliorating the development of obesity. Physiology Behave 2005; 86(5):633-9.

[11] McLeroy KR, Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Educ Q 1988; 15(4):351-77.

[12] Puksa (2004), page 1. Enabling overweight children to improve their food and exercise habits.

[13] Reilly J.J: 92007) page 82.Obesity in child hood and adolescence: Evidence –based clinical and public health perspectives.

[14] Ruston (2003) .National Association for sport and physical education, shape of our Nation`s Children Fact Sheet.

[15] Tinning R. (1990) page 90.Ideology and physical Education: Opening Pandora`s Box Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press.

[16] Traoina RP, Flegal KM, Kuezmarski R.J (1995), page 1085-1091.Overnight prevalence and trends for children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolescents Med.

[17] Whitaker R.C (2004) page114: Reading preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy.paedratrics.

[18] Whitaker RC. Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy. Paediatrics 2004; 114(1):e29-36.

[19] WHO Report (2008) page 2.World Health Organisation. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health.

[20] World Health Organisation (2006) page 16.Health impact assessment in developing countries.

[21] World Health Organization. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health.