Introduction: Aids is a pandemic. In 2016, according to
UNAIDS, the number of people living with HIV is 36.7 million. New infected children
represent 160 000, mostly via their HIV positive mothers during pregnancy, delivery
or breastfeeding. Since 2010, different political
decisions were adopted and later the option B+ to reduce the transmission rate.
Little is known about their implementation at the operational level in the Center
Region of Cameroon.
Method: We aimed to draw the evolution of PMTCT services
in the Biyem-Assi District Hospital. From 01 to 26 April 2016, through a descriptive
retrospective cross sectional study, we used registers of the consultation (pregnant
women, children) and HIV test from 2010 to 2015, Excel software to compile data,
describe tables and figures.
Results: We found a good response rate of the HIV screening
test in the ANC unit. 99.88% in 2015 compare to 95.93% in 2010. The number of pregnant
women newly screened in the delivery room was increasing, 99 in 2013, 279 in 2014
and 786 in 2015. Among these pregnant women newly screened, an increasing number
of positive cases; from 2 in 2010 to 10 in 2015. There was a high rate of lost to
follow up of HIV-exposed infants (HEI).
Conclusion: Training of health care workers is a priority
for the early infant diagnosis of HIV. Further studies are needed to reduce the lost to follow
up, to screen and treat the HEI registered in the delivery rooms.
Keywords: PMTCT, HEI, option B+, Biyem-Assi District Hospital, HIV,
Abtew, S., Awoke,
W., & Asrat, A. (2015, November 9). Acceptability of provider - initiated
HIV testing as an intervention for prevention of mother to child transmission
of HIV and associated factors among pregnant women attending at Public Health
Facilities in Assosa town, Northwest Ethiopia. BioMed Central, p. 661.
. Ahmed, C. V., Jolly, P., Padilla, L., Malinga, M.,
Harris, C., Mthethwa, N., … Preko, P. (2017). A qualitative analysis of the
barriers to antiretroviral therapy initiation among children 2 to 18 months of
age in Swaziland. African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR, 16(4), 321–328. https://doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2017.1380677
. Burton, J., Darbes, L. A., & Operario, D. (2010).
Couples-focused behavioral interventions for prevention of HIV: systematic
review of the state of evidence. AIDS and Behavior, 14(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-008-9471-4
. Etoori, D., Kerschberger, B., Staderini, N.,
Ndlangamandla, M., Nhlabatsi, B., Jobanputra, K., … Teck, R. (2018). Challenges
and successes in the implementation of option B+ to prevent mother-to-child
transmission of HIV in southern Swaziland. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 374. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5258-3
. Ghoma-Linguissi, L. S., Ebourombi, D. F., Sidibe, A.,
Kivouele, T. S., Vouvoungui, J. C., Poulain, P., & Ntoumi, F. (2015).
Factors influencing acceptability of voluntary HIV testing among pregnant women
in Gamboma, Republic of Congo. BMC Research Notes, 8, 652. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1651-5
. Hampanda, K. M., Nimz, A. M., & Abuogi, L. L.
(2017). Barriers to uptake of early infant HIV testing in Zambia: the role of
intimate partner violence and HIV status disclosure within couples. AIDS
Research and Therapy, 14(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0142-2
Janz, N. K., &
Becker, M. H. (1984). The Health Belief Model: a decade later. Health Education
Quarterly, 11(1), 1–47.
(2013). Prise en charge des femmes enceintes infecées par le VIH en France à
l’ère des multithérapies: des recommandations aux pratiques. France.
Nyambe, N., Mwalo, S., Musamba, J., Chishinga, N., Kasonde, P., … Welsh, M.
(2015). Is Male Involvement in ANC and PMTCT Associated with Increased
Facility-Based Obstetric Delivery in Pregnant Women? African Journal of
Reproductive Health, 19(2), 117–124.
. Kieffer, M. P., Mattingly, M., Giphart, A., van de
Ven, R., Chouraya, C., Walakira, M., … EGPAF Technical Directors Forum. (2014).
Lessons learned from early implementation of option B+: the Elizabeth Glaser
Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience in 11 African countries. Journal of
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 67 Suppl 4, S188-194. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000372
. Kim, M. H., Ahmed, S., Hosseinipour, M. C., Yu, X.,
Nguyen, C., Chimbwandira, F., … Abrams, E. J. (2015). Brief Report: Impact of
Option B+ on the Infant PMTCT Cascade in Lilongwe, Malawi. Journal of Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 70(1), 99–103. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000692
. Ministry of Public Health Cameroon. (2012). National
Operational Plan for scaling up of Early Infant Diagnosis (EID), continuum of
care 2013-2014, DRAFT one December 2012. Cameroon.
. Moodley, T., Moodley, D., Sebitloane, M., Maharaj, N.,
& Sartorius, B. (2016). Improved pregnancy outcomes with increasing
antiretroviral coverage in South Africa. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16(1),
. Olana, T., Bacha, T., Worku, W., & Tadesse, B. T.
(2016). Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection using DNA-PCR at a referral
center: an 8 years retrospective analysis. AIDS Research and Therapy, 13(1),
. Tariq, S., Elford, J., Cortina-Borja, M., Tookey, P.
A., & National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. (2012). The
association between ethnicity and late presentation to antenatal care among
pregnant women living with HIV in the UK and Ireland. AIDS Care, 24(8),
. UNAIDS. (2017). UNAIDS DATA 2017.
. W H O. (2013). Consolidated Guidelines on the use of
Antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection.
. WHO. (2010). PMTCT strategic vision 2010-2015
Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV to rach the UNGASS and Millenium
. WHO. (2016). Consolidated Guidelines on the use of
antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection; Recommendations
for a public health approach-second edition (p. 480).
. Zeng, H., Chow, E. P. F., Zhao, Y., Wang, Y., Tang,
M., Li, L., … Zhang, L. (2016). Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission
cascade in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sexually Transmitted
Infections, 92(2), 116–123. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2014-051877