Background: The field of transfusion medicine has encountered
a huge problem in providing safe blood and blood products; therefore there is a
need to improve testing for Transfusion transmitted Diseases (TTDs) and the selection
of blood donors.
Objective: The objective of the present study was to estimate
the prevalence of TTIs among healthy blood donors.
Methods: A total of 12,326 healthy blood donors reporting
to our blood bank in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, were screened
for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human Immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) and Venereal Disease Research Laboratories (VDRL) tests.
Results: A total of 12,326 healthy blood donors aged 18-60
years were screened for TTIs. Out of these 333 donors (2.7%) were seropositive for
HBsAg,219 (1.8%) were seropositive for HIV,195 (1.6%) were seropositive for HCV
and 57 (0.5%) had shown sero positivity for syphilis. More male donors 660 (5.4%)
were infected with TTIs than female donors 144(1.2%).The prevalence of TTIs in this
study showed higher prevalence among donors 18 – 40 years of age (5.3%) compared
to 41-60 years of age group. The rate of co infectivity in our study was 0.3% (33/12,326.
study reflects that blood transfusion is one of the risk factors of spread of TTIs
especially in developing countries where rapid test-based screening protocol tends
to be used increasingly in blood banks. Therefore, proper donor selection and public
awareness campaign targeting communities in poor countries will be an important
measure to curb the spread of TTIs through blood transfusion.
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