Study to determine factors
contributing to non-adherence Medical Ethics by health workers.
are health personnel not adhering to Medical Ethics?
To find out common factors
contributing to non-adherence to medical ethics among health workers at Ndola
There are no factors influencing
non-adherence to medical ethics.
study was conducted at Ndola central hospital which is a 3rd level
referral hospital as well as a teaching hospital. A non- interventional descriptive study was done. Health
care providers were randomly sampled from the departments at Ndola central
Random selection was done using an existing sampling frame (list of health care
providers in each department). Study unit was drawn using simple random
probability sampling, all the health care providers from different departments
were listed and numbers were assigned to each name. These numbers were picked
and were compared to the list. Names against those numbers were picked and were
included in the sample. Quantitative data was collected using a
self-administered structured questionnaire. Prior to data collection, a formal
letter (indicating the title of the study and the objective of the study) was
written and submitted to the senior medical superintendent who is the head of
the institution at which the study was conducted. Before collecting any data,
permission was sort from the participants. They were at liberty either to agree
or refuse to take part in the study or not.
On the basis of
the findings derived from this study, it is obvious that a lot of factors
contributing to non-adherence to medical ethics emanated from this study. The
identified factors contributing to non-adherence to medical ethics among health
workers at Ndola central Hospital were: Health workers feel they know what is
good for the patient and not clients 95%, patients not provided with
information 50%, Lack of alternative remedy in some instances 65%, Some conditions
like STIs spouse should be aware 90%, Shortage of essential drugs and supplies
60%. The fact that there are factors impeding on adherence, quality of service
may be compromised because quality of health service delivery in the country
ought to be enhanced through adherence to medical ethics by health workers.
After all, adherence to medical ethics by health workers is one of the most
critical aspects of quality health service delivery in any country. Indeed,
non-adherence to medical ethics affects not only the way through which health
workers interact with health service users, but also the quality of health
service delivered as it hinders the later from accessing better health
services. Ethical standards promote the values that are essential to good
communication; in turn patients can have confidence, even reciprocal reverence
and unbiased medical care.
Bhattacherjee (2012) Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and
Practices, 2nd edition. Tampa, Florida, USA
M. Exploring Ethical Terrain in Public Health. 1999. Journal of Public Health
Administration Management and Practice. 1(3):16-22.
Lo: A Physician's Perspective: The Centre for HIV law and policy: Available at www.hivlawandpolicy.org/issues/confidentiality-and-disclosure
Beyrer, C., and H. F. Pizer, (eds.),
2007, Public Health and Human Rights: Evidence-Based Approaches,
Baltimore, MD: JHU Press.
Callahan and Bruce Jennings, “Ethics and Public Health: Forging a Strong Relationship,”
American Journal of Public Health 92: 2 (February 2002), 169-176
6. Ethics, prevention and public health edited by Angus Dawson and Marcel Verweij (2007) CLARENDON PRESS · OXFORD
7. Gerald P. Koocher, Ph.D., ABPP and Patricia Keith‑Spiegel, Ph.D. Ethical Risks, Making Decisions, and Taking Action available www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course050.php
& Tegbar Yigzaw University of Gondar In collaboration with the Ethiopia
Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of
Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education, 2006.
R (1994). "Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope". British
Medical Journal 309 (184). doi:10.1136/bmj.309.6948.184. |access date= requires |url= (help)
11. Institute of Medicine (1988). The
Future of Public Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
12. Leslie R Martin,1Summer L Williams,2Kelly B Haskard,2 and M Robin DiMatteo (2005)2The challenge of patient adherence. Available online accessed on 10/04/2015
13. Makasa Emmanuel (2009), Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care. Lusaka. Zambia
14. National Conference of State Legislatures > Abortion Laws > Parental Involvement in Minors' Abortions
15. Pollard, B. J. (1993). "Autonomy and paternalism in medicine". The Medical journal of Australia 159 (11–12): 797–802. PMID 8264472.edit
Powers, M., and R. Faden, 2006, Social
Justice, New York: Oxford University Press.
Powers, M., R. Faden, and Y. Saghai,
2012, “Liberty, Mill, and the Framework of Public Health Ethics,” Public
Health Ethics, 5 (1): 6–15.
Health Ethics-plato.stanford.edu/enties/public health ethics www.publichealthlaw.net/reader).
Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader (California, Milbank Books on Health and the
20. Ryan CJ (2010). "Ethical issues, part 2: ethics, psychiatry, and end-of-life issues". Psychiatry Times27 (6): 26–27.
21. Sikika (2012) Health care workers’
adherence to professional ethics a
score card report on the experience from45 health facilities in six districts
of Tanzania mainland.
Tassano, Fabian. The Power of Life or
Death: Medical Coercion and the Euthanasia Debate. Foreword by Thomas
Szasz, MD. London: Duckworth, 1995. Oxford: Oxford Forum, 1999.
23. UNESCO. Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Adopted by the UNESCO General Conference at Paris, 19 October 2005.
24. Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM, et al. Relationship of
functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease. A
study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:166–72. [PubMed]
25. WHO 1999 The role of public policy in prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections A Guide to Laws, Regulations and Technical Guidelines