Evaluation of Indoor Residual Household Spraying (IRHS): Challenges Faced by Ndola Urban District

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DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.SE.19.01.Art013

Authors : Vivian Mwiinga


The study aimed at determining challenges associated with implementation of IRHS in Ndola urban district, Zambia.

Method: A cross section study conducted at Ndola city council over a period of six weeks, all 122 expert service providers were purposively selected, between October and November 2008. Semi-structured questionnaires and checklist used. Data analyzed by content analysis, Univariate and bivariate analysis, SPSS version 11.5. Chi-square determined association of variables; adherence, availability of logistic, acceptability of IRS and the outcome IRS challenges.

Results: Policy challenges: There was compliance n=7 with storage and disposal guidelines, while n=4 did not comply with use and environmental safeguards, as Spray operators spilled DDT on the ground.

Operational challenges: 81.3% of the respondents said experienced no problems while, 71.4% experienced itching, sneezing, and difficulty breathing, p value 0.005. 66% of Spray operators reported fewer problems implementing IRS while, 12% said had poor training and acquired less skill, p value 0.017. 75.2% revealed that Acceptability of IRS was low and 24.7% said IRS was not effective p value 0.036 validated by n=7 program officers. 28.1% reported repainting of walls, 44.7% reported variations in spraying due to late arrival of logistics 68.4%.

Institutional challenges; 43.9% reported inadequate shower and wash bay facilities and affected their operations much n=4. A checklist revealed serious inadequacies evident in poor transport, disposal bay, preparation bay, wash bay, and change rooms.

Conclusion: Poor institutional structure, insufficient logistics greatly impinged on daily operations of IRS and highly contributed to non-adherence to some policy guidelines.

Keywords: Indoor Residual Household spraying.


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