Adherence to healthful diet has been a challenge both in the developing and developed
countries due to the changes in lifestyles, access to ready junk food, resource
constraints, lack of adequate knowledge, poor regulatory approaches and culture,
to mention but a few, making the world population more vulnerable to non- communicable
diseases (NCDs). By implication, an unhealthy diet is an important factor for disability
and death relative to the increasing global NCD burden. This review updates knowledge
on the role and dimension of diet and health outcomes such as; cardiovascular diseases,
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, diabetes, and cancer.
Methods. A Systematic review
of reviews and meta-analyses on chronic health outcomes attributable to dietary
patterns were studied. In total, 141 reviews and meta-analyses were searched in
Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline but 41 reviews published from 2016 onwards were
included in the study.
Results. Consumption of a
diet rich in animal fats, excessive energy, animal proteins, posed a higher risk
or death due to NCDs. Alternatively, diets comprised of vegetables, fruits, nuts,
low carbohydrates, low polyunsaturated fat, seafood, legumes, nuts, less meat, fish,
and whole-grain were found to be protective for most NCDs. Conclusions. Research conﬁrms diet to be both a risk factor (unhealthful
diet) and at the same time protective (healthful diet) for NCDs. However, further
epidemiological studies should emphasize the assessment of Health outcomes based
on the quantity, frequency, concentration, synergistic interactions of various dietary
S., Lampuré, A., Nechba, A., Baudry, J., Assmann, K., Kesse-Guyot, E., … Fezeu,
L. K. (2018). Prospective.
between Total and Speciﬁc Dietary Polyphenol Intakes and Cardiovascular Disease
Risk in the Nutrinet-Santé French Cohort. Nutrients
2018, 10, 1587; Doi: 10.3390/nu10111587.
guide to implementation research in the prevention and control of non- communicable
diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Available at http://apps.who.int/iris. Accessed on 12th January 2020.
O. P., Adeneye, A. K., Oyefara, J. O., Adejoh, P. E., Musa, Z. A., Oyedeji, K. S.,
Sulyman, M. A., Adeneye, (2017). Behavioral Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases
in Three Most Populous Nigerian Urban Slums. J Public Health Dev Ctries. 2017; 3(1): 327-338.
L. N. (2017). Financing national non-communicable disease responses. Global health action, 10(1), 1326687. DOI:
N. D., editor. "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease." Nutrition Guide
for Clinicians, 3rd ed., Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, 2018.
E. J., Virani, S. S., Callaway, C. W., Chamberlain, A. M., Chang, A. R., Cheng,
S. , …..
P (2018). American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics
Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2018
Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. Mar 20; 137(12):
e67-e492. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000558. Epub 2018 Jan.
M., Banatvala, N., Kulikov, A., Belausteguigoitia, I., Sandoval, R., Hennis, A.,
… Tarlton, D. (2019). Using economic evidence to support policy decisions to fund
interventions for non-communicable diseases. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 365, l1648. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.l1648.
H. E., Carbone, S., Lavie, C. J. Review Dietary Fats, and Chronic Non- communicable
Diseases. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1385; Doi: 10.3390/nu10101385.
F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R.L., Torre, L.A., and Jemal, A. (2018),
Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide
for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 68: 394-424.
M. J., Dael, P. V., Eggersdorfer, M. (2019). The Role of Nutrients in Reducing the
Risk for Non- communicable Diseases during Aging. Nutrients 2019, 11, 85; Doi: 10.3390/nu11010085.
N. G., Misra, A. Mohan, V., Taylor, R., Yancy, W. (2018). Dietary and nutritional
approaches for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes; BMJ 2018; 361: k2234
A. D., Marina, A., Song, X., Callahan, H. S., Kratz, M., & Utzschneider, K.
M. (2017). A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without
changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults. European
journal of nutrition, 56(1), 431–443. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1108-6.
L. W., Aoyama, A., Kahsay, A. B., Hirakawa, Y., Chiang, C., Yatsuya, H., Matsuyama,
and practice of ‘healthy’ diet in relation to non- communicable diseases among the
urban and rural people in northern Ethiopia: a community-based qualitative study.
J. Med. Sci. 80. 451–464, 2018 DOI: 10.18999/nagjms.80.4.451.
E. A., Lenzi, A., Migliaccio, S., & Gessani, S. (2019). Epigenetic Modifications
Induced by Nutrients in Early Life Phases: Gender Differences in Metabolic Alteration
in Adulthood. Frontiers in genetics, 10, 795. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2019.00795M.
M. H., Shahabadi, S., Karami, M., Saidi, M. R., Bashiriyan, S., Mahdi-Akhgar, M.,
Hashemi, S. H. (2016).
Effective Factors for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Adults: A Need Assessment
Study Based on the Trans-Theoretical Model. Global
Journal of Health Science; Vol. 8, No. 10; 2016 ISSN 1916-9736 E-ISSN 1916-9744.
J. & Cronise, R. (2017). Plant-based nutrition for healthcare professionals:
implementing diet as a primary modality in the prevention and treatment of chronic
disease. J Geriatric Cardiol 2017; 14: 355-368. DOI: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.012.
L., Martin, S., Kelly, S. K., Remes, O., Cowan, A. et al. (2016). Behavioral risk
factors in mid-life associated with successful aging, disability, dementia, and
frailty in later life: A rapid systematic review. PLoSONE11 (2): e0144405. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144405.
A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, et al. (2009) The
PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That
Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration. PLoS Med 6(7):
X., Chen, Z. (2017). The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress
in lung diseases. J Transl Med 15, 207
(2017) Doi: 10.1186/s12967-017-1306-5.
& Shah. (2017). A plant-based- diet for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
J Geriatr Cardiol. 2017 May; 14 (5): 342- 354. Doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.009.
A., Basirnejad, M., Shahbazi, S., & Bolhassani, A. (2017). Carotenoids: biochemistry,
pharmacology, and treatment. REVIEW ARTICLE. British Journal of Pharmacology 174 1290–1324 1290. DOI: 10.1111/bph.13625.
C., Poplawski, M., Mastaitis, J., Mobbs, C. (2017). Mechanisms by Which the Ketogenic
Diet Reverses Obesity and Diabetes. Endocrinol
Metab Int J 4(6): 00107. DOI: 10.15406/emij.2017.04.00107.
M., Nyanyau, L., Gichu, M., Kyobutungi, C., Kibachio, J. (2018). Dietary risk factors
for non-communicable diseases in Kenya: findings of the STEPS survey, 2015. BMC Public Health 2018, 18 (Suppl 3):1218.
M. D & Wattick, R. A. (2018). Vegetarian diets and the risk of diabetes: A
review article. Curr DiabRep.2018 Sep 18; 18(11): 101.do: 10.1007/s11892-018-1070-9.
C. M., Chen, L., Heude, B., Bernard, J. Y., Harvey, N. C., Duijts, L., … Hébert,
J. R. (2019). Review Dietary Inﬂammatory Index and Non-Communicable Disease Risk:
A Narrative Review. Nutrients, 11, 1873;
P., Varela-López, A., Forbes-Hernández, T. Y., Gasparrini, M., Afrin, S., Cianciosi,
D., … Giampieri, F. (2018). Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Olive Oil as Nutraceutical
Tools for the Prevention and Management of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases. Review;
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2305; Doi:
W., Ansari, T., Butt, N. S., Hamid, M. R. A. (2017). Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes
mellitus: A review. International Journal
of Health Sciences Vol. 11, Issue 2 (April - June 2017). Available at ijhs.org.sa
ISSN: 1658-3639. Accessed on 10th January 2020.
Salvadό, J., Becerra- Tomάs, N., Papandreou, C., & Bullό, M. (2019). Dietary
patterns emphasizing the consumption of plant foods in the management of type 2
diabetes: a narrative review. AdvNutr.2019Nov 1; 10(supplement_4): s320-s331. Doi:
E., Massaro, M., Garbarino, S., & Toraldo, D. M. (2019). Role of Diet in Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevention and Treatment. Nutrients, 11(6), 1357.
Stephan, B, C. M., Minihane, A., Mathers, J. C., & Siervo, M. (2018). Nitric
Oxide Boosting Effects of the Mediterranean Diet: A Potential Mechanism of Action
Oliver Advance Access publication. April 19, 2018. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2018, Vol. 73, No. 7, 902–904 DOI:10.1093/gerona/gly087.
N., Hebert, J. R., Rosato, V., Garavello, W., Serraino, D., & Vecchia, C. L.
(2017). Inﬂammatory potential of diet and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer in
a large case-control study from Italy; Int.
J. Cancer: 141, 471–479 (2017) V C 2017 UICC. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30711.
R.L., Miller, K.D. and Jemal, A. (2018), Cancer statistics, 2018. CA: A Cancer Journal
for Clinicians, 68: 7-30. DOI:10.3322/caac.21442.
B. L., Norhaizan, M. E., Liew, W. P. (2018). Nutrients and Oxidative Stress: Friend
or Foe? Review Article; Hindawi. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume
2018, Article ID 9719584, 24 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9719584.
G., Meng, X., Li, Y., Zhao, C., Liu, Q. & Li, H. (2017). Effects of Vegetables
on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms; Nutrients 2017, 9, 857; Doi:
U.S. Government and Global Non-communicable Disease Efforts: Available at, http://www.who.int/topics/noncommunicable_diseases/en/;
WHO January 2019.
N. C. (2018) Targeting oxidant-dependent mechanisms for the treatment of respiratory
diseases and their comorbidities. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 40, pp. 1-8.
V., Bertozzi, B., & Fontana, L. (2018). Health Benefits of the Mediterranean
Diet: Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms. J
Gerontol a Biol Sci Med Sci, 2018, Vol. 73, No. 3, 318–326 DOI:10.1093/gerona/glx227.
M., & Pfeiffer, A. F. H. (2018). Impact of Dietary Fiber Consumption on Insulin
Resistance and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes; J Nutr 2018; 148:7–12; Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxx008.
Health Organization (2017). Chronic Disease and Health Promotion. STEP wise approach
to surveillance (STEPS). Geneva World Health Organization.
C., Meng, X., Li, Y., Li, S., Liu, Q., Tang, G., and Li, H. (2017). Review Fruits
for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. Nutrients 2017, 9, 598;
S., & Halaby, R. (2018). Review Dietary Isoﬂavones and Breast Cancer Risk. Medicines
2017, 4, 18; Doi: 10.3390/medicines4020018.