Breast Self-Examination: Knowledge and Practice Among Female Secondary School Students in Delta State, Nigeria
(BSE) is a preventive tool for early identification of breast changes and abnormalities.
This study was aimed at assessing breast self-examination knowledge and practice
among female secondary students in Delta State, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried
out among female senior secondary school students from selected public schools in
Delta State, Nigeria. This study utilized a self-administered 59-item validated
questionnaire for data collection from 216 consenting female students who volunteered
to take part in the study. The knowledge and practice of breast self-examination
were measured on 33 and 18 points reference scales, respectively. Data were analyzed
using SPSS version 23.0. Frequency, mean, standard deviation and correlation analysis
were reported. All statistical tests were at 5% level of significance.
The mean age of the respondents
was 15.5± 1.11 years. The mean score for knowledge of BSE was 5.8±3.8 while the
mean score for BSE practice was 7.3±2.1. Correlation analysis showed no significant
relationship between knowledge and practice of BSE (p=0.095, R= 0.114). The overall
knowledge and practice of BSE was very poor. This calls for the need to improve
breast self-examination advocacy among the adolescents; training and intervention
programs to improve their knowledge as well as the regular practice of BSE.
 World Health Organization.
(2020). Breast Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/cancer/prevention/diagnosis-screening/breast-cancer/en/.
 World Health Organization.
(2020). Adolescent Health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/southeastasia/health-topics/adolescent-health.
 Centers for Diseases
Control and Prevention. (2018). what is Breast Cancer Screening Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/screening.html.
 Sani, A .M, & Yau,
S.L. (2018). Relationship between knowledge and practice of breast self-examination
among female workers in Sokoto, Nigeria. Obstetric
and Gynecological International Journal. 9(3), 157‒162. https//doi.org/ 10.15406/ogij.2018.09.00323.
 Takkar, N., Kochhar,
S., Garg P, Pandey, A. K., Dalal, U.R, & Handa, U. (2017). Screening methods
(clinical breast examination and mammography) to detect breast cancer in women aged
40–49 years. Journal of Mid-life Health, 8 (1), 2-10. Retrieved from http://www.jmidlifehealth.org/text.asp?2017/8/1/2/201966.
 American Cancer Society.
(2020). Recommendations for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer. Retrieved from
 Johns Hopkins Breast
Center. Breast Self-Exams. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/breast_center/treatments_services/breast_cancer_screening/breast_self_exam.html.
 Kalliguddi, S., Sharma,
S., & Gore, C. A. (2019). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination
amongst female IT professionals in Silicon Valley of India. Journal of family medicine and primary care,
8(2), 568–572. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_315_18.
 Shallso, S.A., Boru,
J.D. Breast self-examination practice and associated factors among female healthcare
workers in West Shoa Zone, Western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. (2019). BMC Research Notes 12, 637. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4676-3.
C. B., Dzekem, B., Kehbila, J., Ekabe, C. J., Vofo, B., Abua, N. L. … Angwafo, F.
(2017). Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate
students in a higher teacher training college in Cameroon. The Pan African Medical Journal, 28, 91. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.28.91.10986.
N., Elom, H., Agwu, U., Nwigwe, C., Ezeonu, P., & Umeora, O. (2013). Awareness
and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Market Women in Abakaliki, South East
Nigeria. Annals of medical and health sciences
research, 3(1), 7–12. https://doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.109457.
Society of Breast Surgeons. (2019). Breast Self-Examination. Retrieved from https://breast360.org/topic/2015/02/03/breast-self-examination-bse/.
M.A, & Naab, F. (2014). Relationship between Age and Breast Self-Examination
among Women in Nigeria. International Organization of Scientific Research- Journal of Nursing and health Science, 3(6),
K. N. (2013). Imaging of the adolescent breast. Seminars in plastic surgery, 27(1),
A., Zahid, I., Ladiwala, Z., Sheikh, R., & Memon, A. S. (2018). Breast self-examination
awareness and practices in young women in developing countries: A survey of female
students in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of education and health promotion,
7, 90. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_147_17.
U.M.D, Sabitu, H. & Idris, S.H. (2009). Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination
among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, northwestern
Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine, 8(1),
C. O., & Azuike, E. (2018). Tackling breast cancer in developing countries:
Insights from the knowledge, attitudes and practices on breast cancer and its prevention
among Nigerian teenagers in secondary schools. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 59(4), 282-300. https://doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2018.59.4.964.
F., Igbe, A. P., & Forae, G. D. (2013). Histopathological review of breast tumour
in children and adolescents in Delta State Nigeria. African journal of Paediatric Surgery, 10 (2), 65-7.
A. (2004). Overview of breast and cervical cancers in Nigeria are there regional
variations. In Paper presentation at the International workshop on new trends in
Management of breast and cervical cancers, Lagos, Nigeria.
F. (1992). Breast cancer in Nigerian women. British
Journal of Surgery, 79 (8):771-5.
I.N., Olarenwaju, S.O., Usman, S. (2020). Breast Self-Examination Practice among
Female Secondary School Students in Oshogbo, Western Nigeria. European Journal
of Medical and Health Sciences, 2 (2) 173-180. https://doi.org//10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.2.173.
B.M., & Achilonu, B.O. (2019). Nigerian students' awareness of breast self-examination.
African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health,
Y. C. (2016). Breast Self-Examination (BSE): A strategy for early detection of breast
cancer in Nigeria. Annals of Oncology, 27(9).
N.K., Raji, J.B., Olowoyeye, A.O., Ademoye, R.A., Arogundade, R.O., Soyebi, K.O.,
et al. (2012). Knowledge and Awareness of breast cancer among female secondary school
students in Nigeria. Academic journal of cancer
research, 5 (1). 1-5.
A.R., & Ojedokun, C.I. (2011). Knowledge of breast cancer and practice of breast
self-examination among female secondary school student. Journal of Preventive medicine and hygiene, 52 (4), 186-190.
K.M & Moawed, S.A. (2015). Breast Self-Examination Knowledge among Female High
School Students in Riyadh City. Middle East. Journal of Nursing, 9(1),
H.M., Ranasinghe, N., Rodrigo, C., De A Seneviratne, R. & Rajapaksa, S. (2013).
Awareness of breast cancer among adolescent girls in Colombo, Sri Lanka: a school-based
study. BMC Public Health. 13, 1209.
S. O., Muirhead, C., Hayes, L., & McNally, R. (2018). Rising global burden of
breast cancer: the case of sub-Saharan Africa (with emphasis on Nigeria) and implications
for regional development: a review. World
journal of surgical oncology, 16(1), 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-018-1345-2.