generally refers to integrated implementation of quality interventions within or
across sectors aimed at stimulating development. Funders/donors, policymakers, and
programme managers are key stakeholder groups that determine the success of integrated
development interventions. A shared convergence in their perspectives enables joint
plans and actions. Our objectives were to determine the perspectives of integrated
development, among selected stakeholder groups in Nigeria, and to discuss implications
for practice. This was a quantitative survey. We used a multi-stage random sampling
technique to select a representative sample of 301 key stakeholders in Nigeria.
We analysed the data using SPSS. Almost
half (49.5%) of these respondents were senior level stakeholders and 46.5% of them
had over 10 years of experience. Respondents’ perspectives of the meaning of integrated
development varied. Respondents mostly (69.8%) felt that ID meant multi-sectoral
interventions. Perspectives also varied by stakeholder type, sector and characteristics.
Enhancing collaborations and strengthening human capacity was the predominant benefit
among funders/donors (70.4%) while the most predominantly expressed benefit among
the policy makers (78.9%) and programme managers (78.3%) was that ID yields more
impactful and sustainable interventions. These findings
clearly show that nuanced communication of integrated development is needed to achieve
consensus and programme success.
 FHI 360, Defining Integrated Development at FHI 360.
2016, FHI 360: Washington DC.
 Holveck, J.C., et al., Prevention, control, and
elimination of neglected diseases in the Americas: pathways to integrated,
inter-programmatic, inter-sectoral action for health and development. BMC
Public Health, 2007. 7: p. 6.
 WHO, Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants
of Health, in World Conference on Social Determinants of Health. 2011, World
Health Organization: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
 Van Minh, H., et al., Millennium Development Goals in
Vietnam: Taking Multi-sectoral Action to Improve Health and Address the Social
Determinants. Glob Health Action, 2016. 9: p. 31271.
 UNDP, Human Development Report 2016. 2016, United
Nations Development Programme: New York.
 Sheikh, M.R., et al., Multisectoral development for
improved health outcomes: evaluation of community-based initiatives in the
Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J, 2010. 16(12): p. 1231-6.
 Harris, J. and A. Buchsbaum, Growing Together?
Experiences of Intersectoral Integration in an NGO Nutrition Program: A Study
of HKI’s Enhanced Homestead Food Production Model in Burkina Faso. 2014,
USAID/Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition
Globally (SPRING) Project: Arlington, VA.
 Green, G., Intersectoral planning for city health
development. J Urban Health, 2012. 89(2): p. 247-57.
 Gonzales, F., K. Dearden, and W. Jimenez, do
multi-sectoral development programmes affect health? A Bolivian case studies.
Health Policy Plan, 1999. 14(4): p. 400-8.
 Glouberman, S., et al., A toolbox for improving health
in cities: a discussion paper. 2003, Caledon Institute of Social Policy:
 Gakh, M., Law, the health in all policies approach,
and cross-sector collaboration. Public Health Rep, 2015. 130(1): p. 96-100.
 Fulop, T., New approaches to a permanent problem. The
integrated development of health services and health manpower. WHO Chron, 1976.
30(11): p. 433-41.
 Ulfelder, J., Development as Ideology, in
Dart-throwing chimp - thoughtful analysis or bloviation? your call. 2013.
 Odey, M.O., A Critique of the Notion of Africa as the
"Third World": Towards a New Perspective, in The Political Economy of
Development and Underdevelopment in Africa, T. Falola and J. Achberger,
Editors. 2013, Routledge: New York.
 UNDP, Human Development Report 1992. 1992, United
Nations Development Programme: Oxford.
 UNDP, Human Development Report 1990. 1990, United
Nations Development Programme: Oxford.
 Haq, M.u., Reflections on human development: how the
focus of development economics shifted from national income accounting to
people-centred policies, told by one of the chief architects of the new
paradigm. 1995, New York: Oxford University Press.
 Easterly, W. The Ideology of Development. Foreign
 Paulus, A., et al., Integrated health care from an
economic point of view. Journal of Economic Studies, 2000. 27(3): p. 200-210.
 Briggs, C.J. and P. Garner, Strategies for integrating
primary health services in middle- and low-income countries at the point of
delivery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2006(2).
 FHI 360, Guidance for Evaluating Integrated Global
Development Programs. 2016, FHI 360: Washington DC.
 Lloyd, J. and S. Wait, Integrated Care: a Guide for
Policymakers. 2006, London: Alliance for Health and the Future.
 Bautista, M.A.C., et al., Instruments Measuring
Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties. The Milbank
Quarterly, 2016. 94(4): p. 862-917.
 Kania, J. and M. Kramer, Nonprofit Management:
Collective impact, in Stanford Social Innovation Review. 2011, Leland Stanford
Jr University: Stanford, CA.
 SEED Foundation. Government parastatals and agencies
in Abuja. 2019 [cited 2019 22nd April]; Available from: https://www.abuja-ng.com/parastatals-agencies-in-abuja.html
 SEED Foundation. NGOs in Abuja Nigeria. 2019 [cited
2019 22nd April]; Available from: https://www.abuja-ng.com/ngos-in-abuja.html.
 SEED Foundation. International Organizations and their
Offices in Abuja. 2019 [cited 2019 22nd April]; Available from:
 SEED Foundation. Federal Ministries in Abuja. 2019
[cited 2019 22nd April]; Available from: https://www.abuja-ng.com/federal-ministries-in-abuja.html.
 Gill, J. and P. Johnson, Research methods for
managers. 4th ed. 2010, London: SAGE.
 Price, P.C., R.S. Jhangiani, and I. Chiang, Research
methods in psychology - 2nd Canadian Edition. 2015, Victoria, B.C.: BC Campus.
 IBM Corp., IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version
25.0. 2017, IBM Corp.: Armonk, NY.
 George, D. and P. Mallery, SPSS for Windows Step by
Step: A Simple Guide and Reference. 11.0 update. 4th ed. 2003, Boston: Allyn
 Shigayeva, A., et al., Health systems, ommunicable
diseases and integration. Health Policy and Planning, 2010. 25(suppl_1): p.
 Contandriopoulos, A.-P., et al., The integration of
health care: Dimensions and implementation. 2003.
 Suther, E., et al., Ten Key Principles for Successful
Health Systems Integration. Healthc Q, 2009: p. 13 (Spec No.): 16-23.
 Teague, J., E. Johnston, and J. Graham, Water,
sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition: successes, challenges, and implications for
integration. International Journal of Public Health, 2014: p. DOI:
 Sachs, J.D., Lessons from the Millennium Villages
Project: a personal perspective. The Lancet Global Health, 2018. 6(5): p.
 FHI 360, Integration of global health and other
development sectors: A review of the evidence. 2016, FHI 360: Washington DC.
 WHO, Integrated Health Services-What and Why, in
Technical Brief No. 1. 2008, World Health Organization: Geneva.
 Ringheim, K., J. Gribble, and M. Foreman, Policy
Brief: Integrating Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health Care: Saving
Lives, Money, and Time. 2011, Population Reference Bureau Washington.
 Richey, L.A., HIV/AIDS in the Shadows of Reproductive
Health Interventions. Reproductive Health Matters, 2003. 11(22): p. 30-35.
 WHO, WHO: Advancing the right to health: the vital
role of law. Geneva: World Health Organization., 2017.
 Swanson, R., et al., Rethinking health systems
strengthening: key systems thinking tools and strategies for transformational change. Health Policy Plan, 2012: p. 27(Suppl 4):54-61.
 Kodner, D.L. and C. Spreeuwenberg, Integrated care:
meaning, logic, applications, and implications--a discussion paper. Int J
Integr Care, 2002. 2: p. e12.
 Mooss, A., M. Hartman, and G. Ibanez, Manual
development: A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health
programs. Eval Program Plann, 2015. 53: p. 57-64.