Hypertension also known as
high blood pressure is a global public health issue that has become very common
worldwide and can lead to major health outcomes, such as myocardial infarction,
stroke, renal failure, and ultimately death. The main objective of this study was
to assess the incidences and the prevalence of hypertension among inmates. A correctional
facilities based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate
the incidence and prevalence of hypertension among the inmates of Zambia’s Lusaka
based three correctional facilities. A total of 311 inmates were included in this
study of which 228 (73.3%) were males and 83 (26.7%) were females. Data was analyzed
using STATA version 15.0 software package. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests,
fisher’s exact test and Logistic regression were used to examine, demographic characteristics,
prevalence rate, correlation, risk factors and association in relation to hypertension.
Among the participants 54 (17.4%) were found to be hypertensive. The median blood
pressure for the hypertensive was 157.8/102 mmHg and the median blood pressure for
non-hypertensive was 116/75 mmHg. Incarceration variables correlated with hypertension
were, duration of incarceration p= 0.0001, reasons for detention p= 0.0001, type
of inmate p= 0.0150. Old age, unemployed, major crimes, history of hypertension,
smoking and body mass index were the risk factors for hypertension found among inmates.
The prevalence of hypertension in the three correctional facilities in Zambia was
found to be at 17.4%, which was lower than the prevalence rate in most studies reviewed
and even lower than the prevalence rate in the general population of some selected
districts in Zambia.
 World health
organization. (2013). World health organization. A global brief on hypertension.
Silent killer, Global Public Health Crisis. WHO/DCO/WHD/2013.2 www.int.who. email@example.com.
M., Hassannia, T., Rezaee, A., Ziadi, M., Dadgarmoghaddam, M. (2016). The prevalence
of hypertension and its relationship with demographic factors, biochemical, and
anthropometric indicators: A population-based study. Arya atherosclerosis, 12(6),
M. E., Kluttig, A., Hartwig, S., Lo ¨er, M., Tiller, D., Greiser, K. H., Werdan,
K., Haerting, J. (2015). Prevalence and Incidence of Hypertension in the General
Adult Population Results of the Carla-Cohort Study. Ph.D. ISSN: 0025-7974 Volume
94, Number 22, Doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000952. June 2015 www.md-journal.com.
S., Zachariah, G., Gupta, K., Rao, J. S., Mohanan, P. P... (2019). Prevalence of
hypertension among Indian adults: Results from the great India blood pressure survey.
Indian Heart Journal. 2019 Jul-Aug; 71(4):309-313. Doi: 10.1016/j.ihj.2019.09.012
I., Amidou, S. A., Houehanou, Y. C., Houinato, S. D., Gbagouidi, G. N., Pierre Marie
Preux, P. M., Aboyans, V., Lacroix, P. (2019). The Prevalence, Awareness, Management
and control of Hypertension in Men and Women in Benin, West Africa. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-019-01273-7.
 Fryar, C.
D., Ostchega, Y., Hales, C. M., M.D., Zhang, G., Kruszon-Moran, D. (2017). Hypertension
Prevalence and Control among Adults: The United States, 2015–2016 NCHS.
L., Essink, D., Wright, P., Scheele, F. (2019). Prevalence of Hypertension in Vietnam:
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health,
Vol. 31(2) 101112 Doi: 10.1177/1010539518824810 https://journals.sagepub.com/home/aph.
 Huang, Y.,
Guo, P., Karmacharya, B. M., Seeruttun, S. R., Xu, D. R., Hao, Y. (2019). Prevalence
of hypertension and prehypertension in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Global Health Institute (SGHI), School of Public Health and Institute of National
Governance of Sun Yet-sen University. https://ghrp.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41256-019-0102-6.
M., Alypio Nyandwi, A., Muhimpundu, M. A., Olu, O., Condo, J. U., Rusanganwa, A.,
Koama, J. B., Ngoc, C. T., Gasherebuka, J. B., Ota, M. O., and Okeibunor, J. C.
(2018). A population-based national estimate of the prevalence and risk factors
associated with hypertension in Rwanda: implications for prevention and control.
BMC Public Health 18:2 DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4536-9.
 Wei, Q.,
Sun, J., Huang, J., Zhou, H. Y., Ding, Y. M., Tao, Y. C., He, S. M., Liu, Y. L.,
Niu, J. Q. (2015). Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in Dehui
City of Jilin Province in China. Macmillan Publishers Limited Journal of Human
 World Health
Organization. (2019). Hypertension. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension.
D., Basquill, C. (2014). Estimating the Prevalence and Awareness Rates of Hypertension
in Africa: A Systematic Analysis. Centre for Population Health Sciences, University
of Edinburgh Medical School. 9(8): e104300. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104300. Plos
One www.plosone.org. Volume 9, Issue 8 e104300.
S. T., Maimela, E., Alberts, M., Choma, S., Dikotope, S. (2015). Prevalence and
associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo
Province, South Africa. Department of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Polokwane
Campus, South Africa. http://www.phcfm.org.doi:10.4102/phcfm. v7i1.847.
D., Nankya-Mutyoba, J., Kalyesubula, R., Laurence, C., Adebamowo, C., Ajayi, I.
O., Bajunirwe, F., Njelekela, M., Chiwanga, F. S., Reid, T., Volmink, J., Adami,
H., Michelle D. Holmes, M. D., Dalal, S. (2015). The burden of hypertension in sub-Saharan
Africa: a four-country cross-sectional study. Makerere University College of Health
N. R. C., Lemogoum, D. (2015). Hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: a massive and
increasing health disaster are awaiting solution. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa.
Volume 26, No 4, CDC Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice, Third
Edition. An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics Lesson 3, Section
2: Morbidity Frequency Measures retrieved from, https://www.cdc.gov/csels//ss1978/lesson3/section2.html.
On 26 May 2021 at 1735 hours.
 Addo, J.,
Smeeth, L., Leon, D. A. (2007). Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic
A., Rayner, B., Ojji, D., Schutte, A. E., Twagirumukiza, M., Damasceno, A., Ba,
S. A., Kane, A., (2017). Roadmap to Achieve 25% Hypertension Control in Africa by
2025 on behalf of the Pascar task force on hypertension. Cardiovascular Journal
of Africa Volume 28, No 4, 262. Doi: 10.5830/CVJA-2017-040
 Mills, K.
T., Bundy, J. D., Kelly, T. N., Reed, J. E., Kearney, P. M., Reynolds, K., Chen,
J., He, J. (2016). Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control: A Systematic
Analysis of Population-based Studies from 90 Countries. Department of Epidemiology,
Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine 134:441–450. DOI:
 Yan, L.
D., Chi, B. H., Sindano, N., Bosomprah, S., Stringer, J. S. A., Chilengi, R. (2015).
Prevalence of hypertension and its treatment among adults presenting to primary
health clinics in rural Zambia: analysis of an observational database. BMC Public
Health 15:933 DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-2258-4.
 Goma, F.
M., Mwewa, B., Tembo, G. K., Kachamba, M., Syatalimi, C. (2019). May Measurement
Month 2017: Blood pressure screening results from Zambia—Sub-Saharan Africa. https://academic.oup.com/eurheartjsupp/article-abstract/21/Supplement.
 Rush, K.
L., Goma, F. M., Barker, J. A., Olivier, R. A., Ferrier, M. S., Singini, D. (2018).
Hypertension prevalence and risk factors in rural and urban Zambian adults in the
western province: a cross-sectional study. The Pan African Medical Journal
– ISSN: 1937- 8688 www.panafrican-med-journal.com.
 Oelke, N.,
Rush, K., Goma, F., Barker, J., Marck, P., Pedersen, C. (2015). Understanding Perceptions
and Practices for Zambian Adults in Western Province at Risk for Hypertension: An
Exploratory Descriptive Study. VL - 8. DO - 10.5539/gjhs. v8n2p248 - 259. Global
journal of health science.
D., Siziya, S., Rudatsikira, E., Mukonka, V. M., Babaniyi, O., Songolo, P., Muula,
A. (2013). District specific correlates for
hypertension in Kaoma and Kasama rural districts of Zambia. Rural and Remote Health
2013; 13: 2345. https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH2345.
E. J., Maposa, S. (2013). Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Prisoners: An Integrative
Review Volume 9. www.journalforensinursing.com.
L. C. (2014). Incarceration and Post-release Health Behavior. Journal of Health
and Social Behavior Doi: 10.1177/0022146514531438 2014 55 Department of Sociology
Kent State University Kent, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262695433.
 Houle, B.
(2014). The Effect of Incarceration on Adult Male BMI Trajectories, United States,
1981–2006. March; 1(1): 21–28. Doi: 10.1007/s40615-013-0003-1. NIH-P. Institute
of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.
P. (2018). Health Literacy for Hypertension in the Inmate Population. Walden Dissertations
and Doctoral Studies Walden University. Doctoral Studies Collection. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6253&context=dissertati.
 Han, H.,
Chan, K., Song, H., Nguyen, T., Lee, J., T. Kim, M. T. (2011). Development and Evaluation
of a Hypertension Knowledge Test for Korean Hypertensive Patients. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011; 13(10):750-757.
A. T., Boombhi, J., Njonnou, S. R. S., Jingi, A. M., Efon, K. N., Bâ, H., Mfeukeu-Kuate,
L., Nganou-Ngnindjo, C. N., Amougou, S. N., Essomba, M. N., Kebiwo, O. K., Ndjonya,
S. T., Mayap, V. P., Menanga, A. P., Kingue, S. (2019). Prevalence of hypertension
and associated risk factors among a group of prisoners in Yaoundé Central Prison:
a cross-sectional study. Journal of Xiangya Medicine. University of Yaoundé http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jxym.2019.05.01.
S. (2018). Prevalence of Hypertension among Incarcerated Males of Jhumka Regional
Prison, Eastern Nepal. Journal of Hypertension:
Volume 36 - Issue - p e345 doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000549409.97583.00.
 Yamane, Taro. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory
Analysis, 2nd Edition, New York: Harper and Row.
R., Raine, A., Leonard, N. R. (2017). Cognitive Decline as a Result of incarceration
effects of a CBT/MT intervention. A Cluster-Randomized Controlled trial. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2018, Vol. 45, No. 1, January 2018, 31 –55. DOI: 10.1177/0093854817736345. 2017 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.
 Sanne, S.,
Muntner, P., Kawasaki, L., Hyre, A., Desalvo, K. B. 2008. Hypertension Knowledge among Patients from an Urban Clinic.
Ethnicity & Disease, Volume 18. Ethn Dis. 2008; 18(1):42-47. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18447098.