Incidence and Prevalence of Hypertension among Inmates in Three Correctional Facilities in Lusaka Province Zambia

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DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.09.04.Art013

Authors : Himwaaba Gift


Hypertension also known as high blood pressure is a global public health issue that has become very common worldwide and can lead to major health outcomes, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and ultimately death. The main objective of this study was to assess the incidences and the prevalence of hypertension among inmates. A correctional facilities based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the incidence and prevalence of hypertension among the inmates of Zambia’s Lusaka based three correctional facilities. A total of 311 inmates were included in this study of which 228 (73.3%) were males and 83 (26.7%) were females. Data was analyzed using STATA version 15.0 software package. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, fisher’s exact test and Logistic regression were used to examine, demographic characteristics, prevalence rate, correlation, risk factors and association in relation to hypertension. Among the participants 54 (17.4%) were found to be hypertensive. The median blood pressure for the hypertensive was 157.8/102 mmHg and the median blood pressure for non-hypertensive was 116/75 mmHg. Incarceration variables correlated with hypertension were, duration of incarceration p= 0.0001, reasons for detention p= 0.0001, type of inmate p= 0.0150. Old age, unemployed, major crimes, history of hypertension, smoking and body mass index were the risk factors for hypertension found among inmates. The prevalence of hypertension in the three correctional facilities in Zambia was found to be at 17.4%, which was lower than the prevalence rate in most studies reviewed and even lower than the prevalence rate in the general population of some selected districts in Zambia.

Keywords: Correctional Facility, Hypertension, Incidence, Inmates, Lusaka, Prevalence.


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