Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of/towards Covid-19 among Cameroonians in the Bamenda Health District: A Cross-Sectional Study during the Second Wave of the Pandemic
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has and is greatly affecting the global
community. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards Covid-19
among a convenient sample of the general public in the Bamenda Health District (BHD)
of Cameroon. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted
in the BHD, from 1st March to 30th April
2021. Participants were sampled
from three Health Areas in Bamenda. Data collection was performed using a self-administered questionnaire. The Pearson Chi square (χ2) and regression
analysis were used to determine associations between KAP and demographic characteristics.
We studied 404 participants with the
following demographic characteristics: 237
(58.7%) aged 25 – 49 years,
233 (57.7%) females, and 197 (48.8%) with tertiary level of education. Of the 404
participants, 182 (45.0%) were knowledgeable about Covid-19 (79 males and 103 females),
42.5% had positive attitudes towards Covid-19 (63 males and 109 females), and 122
(30.2%) were adherent to practicing public health preventive measures (48 males
and 74 females). Compared to females, males were more adherent to practicing public
health preventive measures (OR, 1. 3; 95% CI, 0.8 – 2.1), and had positive attitudes
towards directives and guidelines (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 – 2.8). This study shows
that public health prevention efforts should be directed to closing the identified gaps in KAP among residents to halt the spread of
Covid-19 in the health
district as well as the Region.
 WHO: Considerations
for implementing and adjusting public health and social measures in the context
of Covid-19. Interim guidance. In.: World Health Organisation; (2019).
TP, Meyer CG: The Covid-19 epidemic. Trop
Med Int Health (2020), 25(3):278-280.
 Masoud AT,
Zaazouee MS, Elsayed SM, Ragab KM, Kamal EM, Alnasser YT, Assar A, Nourelden AZ,
Istatiah LJ, Abd-Elgawad MM et al: KAP-Covid
Global: a multinational survey of the levels and determinants of public knowledge,
attitudes and practices towards Covid-19. BMJ
Open (2021), 11(2):e043971.
 Marzo RR,
Villanueva III EQ, Chandra U, Htay MNN, Shrestha R, Shrestha S. Risk perception,
mental health impacts and coping strategies during Covid-19 pandemic among Filipino
healthcare workers. J Public Health Res.
 Mohan BS,
Vinod N: Covid-19: An Insight into SARS-CoV2 Pandemic Originated at Wuhan City in
Hubei Province of China. Journal of Infectious
Diseases and Epidemiology (2020), 6(4).
 Okello G,
Izudi J, Teguzirigwa S, Kakinda A, Van Hal G: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Survey
on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Covid-19 in Uganda: Implications for
Public Health Prevention and Control Measures. BioMed Research International (2020):1 - 8.
 Judson SD,
Njabo KY, Torimiro JN: Regional vulnerability for Covid-19 in Cameroon. Pan Afr Med J (2020), 37(Suppl 1):16.
 Siewe Fodjo
JN, Ngarka L, Njamnshi WY, Nfor LN, Mengnjo MK, Mendo EL, Angwafor SA, Basseguin
JGA, Nkouonlack C, Njit EN et al: Covid-19
Preventive Behaviours in Cameroon: A Six-Month Online National Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health (2021), 18(5):12.
 Beche E:
Cameroonian responses to Covid-19 in the education sector: Exposing an inadequate
education system. International Review of
 Akumbu PW:
Legitimizing the development and use of Cameroon’s national languages: Lessons from
Covid-19. Journal of the Cameroon Academy
of Sciences (2020), 15(3):193-206.
U, Meno F, Dongfack A, Ventelou B: Simulating the progression of the Covid-19 disease
in Cameroon using SIR models. PLoS One
(2020), 15(8): e0237832.
M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Duledohn SC, Di Napoli R: Features, evaluation and treatment
Coronavirus (Covid-19) statpearls. Treasure Island (FL). StatPearl Publishing (2020).
 Huang C,
Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, Fan G, Xu J, Gu X et al: Clinical features of patients infected
with (2019) novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet (2020), 395(10223):497-506.
 Pervin MR,
Parvin R, Babu MA, Ahmmed MM, Marzo RR. The obstacles to combat against Covid-19
pandemic and the remedies: Bangladesh scenario. J Public Health Res. (2021),10(s2):2271.
 MOH. Cameroon: Covid 19 Emergency Situation
Report No. 21 of 1st November to 31st December 2021 [Internet].
Situation Report No.21. (2021), [cited 2022 Mar 20]. Available from: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/cameroon_covid-19_emergency_sitrep_n21_nov-dec_2021_final.pdf
 CRTV. Covid-19:
Cameroon Launches Fourth Vaccination Campaign [Internet]. Cameroon Radio Television. (2022), [cited 2022 Mar 30]. Available from:
 Marzo RR,
Ahmad A, Islam MS, Essar MY, Heidler P, King I, et al: Perceived Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness, acceptance, and drivers
of vaccination decision-making among the general adult population: A global survey
of 20 countries. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. (2022),16(1):e0010103.
 Marzo RR,
Sami W, Alam MZ, Acharya S, Jermsittiparsert K, Songwathana K, et al: Hesitancy in Covid-19 vaccine uptake
and its associated factors among the general adult population: a cross-sectional
study in six Southeast Asian countries. Trop
Med Health. (2022),50(4):1–10.
M, El-Abasiri RA, Dardeer KT, Kamal MA, Htay MNN, Abler B, et al: Factors Influencing Decision Making Regarding the Acceptance
of the Covid-19 Vaccination in Egypt: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Urban, Well-Educated
Sample. Vaccines. 2022,10(20):1–12.
 Marzo RR,
Ahmad A, Abid K, Khatiwada AP, Ahmed A, Kyaw TM, et al: Factors influencing the acceptability of Covid-19 vaccination:
A cross-sectional study from Malaysia. Vacunas.
 Dinga JN,
Sinda LK, Titanji VPK. Assessment of Vaccine Hesitancy to a Covid-19 Vaccine in
Cameroonian Adults and Its Global Implication. Vaccines Basel. (2021),9(2).
 Li JY, You
Z, Wang Q: The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights
for emerging infectious diseases in the future. Microbes and Infection, 22(2), 80–85.
and practices towards Covid-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period
of the Covid-19 outbreak: A quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci (2020), 16(10):1745–1752.
 Fru CN,
Tassang AN, Greenspan D, Cho FN, Mokake M, Livingstone J, et al: Vaccination Hesitancy: The Case of Cervical Cancer Vaccination
in Fako Division, Cameroon. Int J Trop Dis
 NIS.: 2nd
Survey on the Monitoring of Public Expenditures and the Level of Recipients’ Satisfaction
in the Education and Health Sectors in Cameroon (PETS2). In: Health Component. 2
edn. Yaoundé National Institute of Statistics; 2010: 1 - 116.
 Tendongfor N FV, Esemu SN, Amana BTV, Kouam
TDG, Lambou FV, Nsagha DS: Covid-19 knowledge, attitudes and practices in a conflict
affected area of the South West Region of Cameroon. Pan Africa Medical Journal (2020).
Z, Deyessa N, Teka B, Shiferaw W, Hailemariam D, Addissie A, Abagero A, Kaba M,
Abebe W, Nega B et al: Covid-19 and the public response: Knowledge, attitude and
practice of the public in mitigating the pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PLoS
ONE (2021), 16(1):e0244780.
 Tavakol M, Dennick R: Making sense of Cronbach’s
alpha. International Journal of Medical Education (2011), 2:53-55.
AM, Al‑Sheikh MA, Al‑Osail EM, Al‑Ghamdi MA, Al‑Hawas AM, Al‑Bahussain AS, Al‑Dajani
AA: Is Cronbach’s alpha sufficient for assessing the reliability of the OSCE for
an internal medicine course? BMC Res Notes
B, Dunn L: The Declaration of Helsinki on Medical Research involving Human Subjects:
A Review of Seventh Revision. Journal of Nepal
Health Research Council (2019), 17(45):548-552.
 Gupta S:
Ethical Issues in Designing Internet-Based Research: Recommendations for Good Practice.
Journal of Research Practice (2017), 13(2):1-14.
AHA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Kalif MSH, Shahadah RFB, Almuqati KSA, Al-Sulaiman BSA, Alharbi
KKS, Alabbad FYM, Alabbad JYM, Alquwaiz IAI et
al: Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice
towards Covid-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.
Med Sci (Basel) (2021), 9(1):12.
A, Nkengazong L, Ambe LA, Ebogo JT, Mba FM, Goni HO, Nyunai N, Ngonde MC, Oyono
JE: Knowledge, attitudes, practices of/towards Covid 19 preventive measures and
symptoms: A cross-sectional study during the exponential rise of the outbreak in
Cameroon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2020), 14(9):e0008700.
 Qutob N,
Awartani F: Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards Covid-19 among Palestinians
during the Covid-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional survey. PLoS One (2021), 16(1): e0244925.
 Banik R,
Rahman M, Sikder MT, Rahman QM, Pranta MUR: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices
related to the Covid-19 pandemic among
Bangladeshi youth: a web-based cross-sectional analysis. Z Gesundh Wiss (2021):1-11.