Association of HIV to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Chest Clinic of a General Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria
To determine the prevalence rate of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus(HIV) among tuberculosis
(TB) patients in a general hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional
study. Demographic information was retrieved from the register of TB patients, HIV
testing was done through rapid testing and confirmation by the hospital laboratory.
Descriptive statistics was used to get the characteristics of the study participants.
Bivariate analysis was performed for estimation of odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence
interval (CI). Chi square was utilized for the determination of the relationships
that exists between study variables. P-values <0.05 were considered significant.
All the 130 patients gave consent to be tested for HIV. Eighty-eight (88) of the
patients were male representing 67.7% of the patients and 85.4% of the patients
had sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) while the rest were sputum
smear negative, 20 (15.4%) were HIV-positive. HIV prevalence among male patients
was 13.6% (p value=0.42), but 19.1% (p value=0.42)among female patients. Prevalence
of HIV among sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients was 13.5% (p value=0.15)
and 26.3% (p value=0.15) among sputum smear negative patients.
This study revealed that HIV prevalence is higher among
pulmonary TB patients than among the general population in Nigeria. It further lays
credence to the close link that exists between active TB and HIV/AIDS infection
in Nigeria, and the higher proportion of sputum smear negativity is found in HIV
positive patients. There is a need therefore for a program to address HIV/TB co-infection.
HIV, co-infection, Lagos, Nigeria.
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