Correctional facilities have often been cited as reservoirs for Tuberculosis
(TB), presenting a potential threat to the general population. Although correctional
facilities are recognized as ideal settings for interventions, little is known about
the TB epidemiology within them. The purpose of my study was to determine factors
associated with the development of pulmonary tuberculosis among inmates in the selected
correctional facilities of Copperbelt province of Zambian. The design of the study
was a descriptive cross-sectional study that aimed at determining factors associated
with the development of PTB among inmates, a case study of Ndola Remand, Chingola,
Luanshya, and Mufulira Correctional Facilities. A semi-structured self-administered
questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding factors associated with the development
of PTB amongst inmates. From the total of 384 study participants, 143 had records
of having PTB during the research period, and 241 had no records of having TB disease.
With evidence obtained from this study has identified the areas that need attention
in terms of control and prevention of TB in the four (4) correctional facilities. Furthermore, the factors associated with
TB positivity in the present study included HIV status, sharing of cells with TB
patients, and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.
 Jugheli L, Rigouts L, Shamputa I, Bram de Rijk W, Portaels F. (2008) High levels of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis
drugs among prisoners with pulmonary Tuberculosis in Georgia. Int
J Tuberc Lung Dis. 12(5):561–6.
 Banda H, Gausi F, Harries A and Salaniponi F. (2009) Prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary Tuberculosis
among prisoners in Malawi: a national survey [Short communication] Int J Tuberc Lung Dis.13 (12):1557–9.
 Coninx R, Maher D, Reyes H, Grzemska M. (2000).
Tuberculosis in prisons in countries with high prevalence. BMJ 320(7232):440-2.
 O’Grady J, Hoelscher M, Atun R, Bates M, Mwaba P, Kapata N, et
al. (2011) Tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa the
need for improved health services, surveillance, and control. Tuberculosis. 91 (2):173–8.
 Lobacheva, T., Asikainen, T. and Giesecke, J. 2007.
Risk factors for developing tuberculosis in remand prisons in St. Petersburg, Russia,
a case control study. European Journal of Epidemiology 22(2): 121 – 127.
 Shah A, Maurya V, Vijayan V. (2002) Smoking and Tuberculosis: an association overlooked. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 6 (11):942–51.
 Abubakar I, Zignol M, Falzon D, Raviglione M, Ditiu L, Masham
S, et al. (2013) Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political
leadership. Lancet Infect Dis. 13 (6):529–39. Doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70030-6.
 Hussain H, Akhtar S, Nanan D. (2003) Prevalence of and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in
prisoners, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan. International Journal of Epidemiology
.32 (5):794-99. Doi: 10.1093/ije/dyg247.
 Manzoor S, Tahir Z, Anjum A. Prevalence of HIV and Tuberculosis
among jail inmates in lahore pakistan. Journal of Biomedical science. 2009;
 World Health Organization. WHO policy on collaborative TB/HIV
activities. Guidelines for national programs and other stakeholders. WHO, Geneva,
Swetzerland 2012. WHO/HTM/TB/2012.
 Nyangulu D, Harries A. Kang’ombe C, Yadidi A, Chokani K, Cullinan
T, et al. tuberculosis in a prison population in Malawi. Lancet. 1997; 350
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Rapid assessment
of tuberculosis in a large prison system--Botswana, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly
 Abebe D, Bjune G, Ameni G, Biffa D, Abebe F. Prevalence of pulmonary
Tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Eastern Ethiopian prisons. Int J Tuberc
Lung Dis. 2011;15
 Aerts A, Hauer B, Wanlin M, Veen J. Tuberculosis, and tuberculosis
control in European prisons. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006; 10(11):1215–23.
 Hammett TM, Harmon MP, Rhodes W. (1997) The burden
of infectious disease among inmates of and releases from US correctional facilities,
Am J Public Health 2002 Nov; 92(11):1789-94.
 Stuckler D, Basu S, McKee M, King L. (2008) Mass
incarceration can explain population increases in TB and multidrug-resistant TB
in European and central Asian countries. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 105(36):13280-5.
 Niveau G. (2006) Prevention of infectious disease
transmission in correctional settings: a review. Public Health. 120 (1):33-41.
 Baussano I., William B.,Nunn P.,Beggiato M.,Fedeli
U.,Scano F.(2012).Tuberculosis incidence in Prison inmates .J Inject Dis.
 Telisinghe L, Fielding KL, Malden JL, Hanifa Y, Churchyard GJ,
Grant AD, et al: High tuberculosis prevalence in a South African prison: the need
for routine tuberculosis screening. Plos one. 2014; 9 (1): e87262.
 Unpublished literature, Zambian correctional services,
Copperbelt province (region) office (2021). Tuberculosis prevalence in Copperbelt
 Mogoere S. P. (2013) Risk Factors Associated with
Tuberculosis at Mangaung Correctional Centre: Retrospective Analysis. Johannesburg,
South Africa: Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of
the Witwatersrand; ID 752709.
 Koffi, N., Ngom, A.K., and Aka- Danguy, E. (2007). Smear positive tuberculosis in a prison setting: experience in the penal camp of Bouake, Ivory Coast. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung disease 1(3): 250–253.
 Butler T, Levy M. (1999)
Mantoux positivity among prison inmates-New South Wales, 1996. Aust N Z J Public Health. 23(2):185. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-842X.1999.tb01232.