Investigating the Effects of Occupational Stress on Nurses Working in Referral Hospitals in Botswana to Reduce Health Risk

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.10.04.Art012

Authors : Tabby Maphangela


The incidence of work stress among nurses is a persistent issue. This qualitative study was carried out to examine the problems that nurses experience in providing basic health care at Botswana referral hospitals. The study was presented as a qualitative research approach. Three referral hospitals: Princess Marina Hospital, Nyangabwe Referral Hospital, and Sabrana Psychiatric Hospital were chosen for this study. Ten management officers from the three referral hospitals with the necessary and appropriate experience were purposefully sampled in order to generate the required data via questionnaires and interviews. An inductive thematic data analysis was then used, the researchers attentively examined the data to uncover common themes and patterns that appear frequently. The intended study objectives were obtained by focusing on the preceding sampled data from management officers in referral hospitals: to identify challenges faced by nurses in the delivery of basic health care services and to recommend strategies that can be used to address challenges faced by nurses in the delivery of basic health care services. The overall findings of this study emphasized three themes that developed from the interviews: the obstacles faced by nurses in the delivery of essential health care services, which are: a lack of manpower, a lack of staff and accommodation, low wages, and a terrible working environment. The researchers finished by providing a conceptual model that may be employed as an intervention technique in the workplace to help with occupational stress.

Keywords: Occupational Stress, Stressors, Stress, Nurses.


[1] Alomani, Q., 2016, Causes and Effects of Occupational Stress in Nursing. Proceedings of 17th Iastem International Conference, Istanbul Turkey.

[2] American Board of Occupational Health Nursing, 2016, Occupational health nursing profession, Hinsdale, ABOHN, 3–28.

[3] Aditi, V., Rishu, R., 2020, Occupational Stress among Nurses: A Factorial Study with Special Reference to Indore City, Journal of Health Management, 22(1)67-77.

[4] Banovcinova, L., & Baskova, M., 2014, Sources of Work-related Stress and their Effect on Burnout in Midwifery, Procedia - Soc Behav Sci; 132:248–54.

[5]    David, H., 1995, Mental Health and the Built Environment, New York, Routledge.

[6] Dagget, T., Molla, A., Belachew, T., 2016, Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, Southwest Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. BMC Nurs. 2016; 15(1):1–11.

[7] Dobnik, M., Maletič, M., Skela-Savič, B., 2018, Work-Related Stress Factors in Nurses at Slovenian Hospitals-A Cross-Sectional Study, Slovenian Journal of Public Health, 2018;57(4):192–200.

[8] Gebeyehu, S., Zeleke, B., 2019, Workplace stress and associated factors among healthcare professionals working in public health care facilities in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes; 12(1):1–5.

[9] Hamim, N., 2015, Workload and Work Stress on Caring Behavior in nurse on Nursing Services, Int J Hum Resour Stud, 5(3):148.

[10] Jelastopulu, E., Tsouvaltzidou, T., Vangeli, E., Messolora, F., Detorakis, J., Alexopoulos, E., 2013, Self-reported Sources of Stress, Job Satisfaction and Quality of Care in Professional Hospital Nurses in West-Greece, Nurs Heal. 1(1):1–9.

[11] Rasool, E.A., Nasrin, Elahi, E.M., Masoud, F. K., 2017, How Do the Nurses Cope with Job Stress? A Study with Grounded Theory Approach, Journal of Caring Sciences, 6(3), 199211.

[12]  Jose, T.T., Bhat, S.M., A, 2015, Descriptive Study on Self-Esteem among Nurses Working in Selected Hospitals of Udupi and Mangalore Districts Karnataka, India. Int J Nurs Educ. 7(3):154.

[13] Kawano, Y, 2008, Association of job-related stress factors with psychological and somatic symptoms among Japanese hospital nurses: Effect of departmental environment in acute care hospitals. J Occup Health, 50(1):79–85.

[14] Kokoroko, E., Sanda, M.A., 2019, Effect of Workload on Job Stress of Ghanaian OPD Nurses: The Role of Coworker Support. Saf Health Work, 8(3):142.

[15] Jasmina, S., 2018, Stress Factors among Nurses at the Primary and Secondary Level of Public Sector Health Care: The Case of Slovenia, Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(2): 416–422.

[16] Muraleeswaran, R., Akilendran, K., 2016, An Assessment of level of work – Related Stress Among Nursing Officers at District General Hospital Vavuniya in Sri Lanka. Int J Sci Res Publ, 6(3):177–80.

[17] Mushonga, B., Dube-Mawerewere, V., 2017, Factors that contribute to burnout syndrome among critical care nurses in Intensive Care Units, Botswana. Int J Nurs Sci, 7(4):91–5.

[18] Prisca, E.N., 2020, Assisting Psychiatric Nurses in Managing Work Stress and Decreasing Callouts and Absenteeism. ProQuest LLC.

[19] Yueh-Chi, T.1., Chieh-Hsing, L., 2012, Factors and symptoms associated with work stress and health-promoting lifestyles among hospital staff: a pilot study in Taiwan. BMC Health Serv Res, 12(162):199.

[20] Yuan, D., Gazi, A.I., Rahman, A., 2022, Occupational stress and health risk of employees working in the garments sector of Bangladesh: An empirical study. Frontiers in Public Health, 12(1):1–5.