Causes and Consequences of Air Pollution in Nigeria

Download Article

Authors : Ukemenam Obianuju Sarah


Air pollution is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The greatest health impacts from air pollution worldwide occur among the poorest and most vulnerable populations. The amount of exposure in terms of the number of people, exposure intensity and time spent exposed is far greater in the developing world (Smith, 1993); approximately 76% of all global particulate matter air pollution occurs indoors in the developing world


[1.] Aaron, K.K., 2006. Human Rights Violation and Environmental Degradation in the Niger-Delta. In: Elizabeth P. and O. Baden (Eds.), Activating Human Rights. Barne, Oxford, New York.

[2.] Akpoborie, I.A., A.O. Ekakite and E.O. Adaikpoh, 2000. The quality of groundwater from Dugwellsn parts of the western Niger Delta. Knowl. Rev., 2: 72-79.

[3.] Alakpodia, I.J., 1980. The effect of gas flaring on the microclimate and adjacent vegetation in Isoko area. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

[4.] Alakpodia, I.J., 1989. The effects of gas flaring on the micro-climate and adjacent vegetation in isoko area of Bendel state. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Ibadan.

[5.] Alakpodia, I.J., 1995. The oil industry and the economic environment of the Niger Delta. Paper Presented at the 30th Annual Conference, Nigeria Geographical Association, at the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

[6.] Anderson, I., 2005. Niger River Basin: A Vision for Sustainable Development. The World Bank, pp: 131

[7.] Bronwen, M., 1999. The Price of Oil Human Rights Watch. Perception and Reality: Assessing Priorities for Sustainable Development in the Niger River Delta Retrieved October 3, 2011.

[8.] Enemari, E., 2001. Vehicular emissions: Environmental and health implications. National Conference on the Phase-out Leaded Gasoline in Nigeria.

[9.] Faboya, O.O., 1997. Industrial Pollution and Waste Management. In: Akinjide O. (Ed.), Dimensions of Environmental Problems in Nigeria. Ibadan Davidson Press, pp: 26-35.

[10.]   Fuggle, R.F., 2004. Africa Environment Outlook Lake Victoria: A Case Study of Complex Interrelationships United Nations Environment Programme, pp: 75-85.

[11.]   Federal Environmental Protection Agency, 1991. National Policy on the Environment. The Presidency, Abuja, Nigeria.

[12.]   Ifeanyichukwu, G.P., 2002. Modeling of air pollution in industrial cities: Case study of Lagos, Nigeria, B. Eng Degree Thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, pp: 4.

[13.]   Makinde, R. (2000) ‘How to Make Nigerian Cities Liveable’. The Guardian, Vol. 17, No. 7953, Guardian Newspapers Limited, Isolo, Lagos

[14.]   Marland, G., T.A. Bnousoden and R.J. Andres, 2005. Global, Regional and National CO2 Emission. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

[15.]   Moffat, D. and O. Linden., 1995. Perception and reality assessing priorities for sustainable development in the Niger Delta. J. Hum. Env., 24(7-8): 327-538.

[16.]   Molles Jr, M.C., 2005. Ecology Concepts and Applications. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Co. Inc, pp: 93-94

[17.]   Odigure, J.O., 1998. Safety Loss and Pollution Control in Chemical Process industries. Jodigs and Associates, Minna, Nigeria, pp: 89-93.

[18.]   Olobaniyi, S.B. and S.I. Efe, 2007. Comparative assessment of rainwater and groundwater quality in an oil producing area of Nigeria: Environmental and health implications. J. Env. Heal. Res., (6)2: 111-118.

[19.]   Oyekunle, L.O., 1999. Effect of gas flaring in Niger-Delta Area. NSChE Proceedings, Port-Harcourt, pp: 13.

[20.]   USEPA, (1993) Guide to Environmental Issues, Document Number 520/B-94-01 United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA

[21.]   USEPA (1994) National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 2, 6, 46, 52.

[22.]   Uyigue, E. and M. Agho., 2007. Coping with Climate Change and Environmental Degradation in the Niger-Delta of South Nigeria. Community Research and Development Centre (CREDC), Benin.