Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes among Mbororo Population of Guiwa-Yangamo Village in the East -Cameroon

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DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.04.04.Art006

Authors : Judith Maka, Félix Assah, Clarisse Mapa-Tassou, Clément Kufe, Akenji Siri, Jean-Claude Mbanya


In the world in 2013, Diabetes affected 382 million of people, and 316 million were at risk of developing it. Diabetes was responsible for the dead of 5 million persons aged 20-79, that was 8,4% of the world’s mortality for this age range (1). Type 2 diabetes is the most common type and is the challenge of the 21st century for health (2). Its risk factors like obesity and complications like limbs amputations and others cost much (3). It therefore presents a severe health problem for the population with low socio-economic level and disfavored groups. Described by the WHO, the minority « Autochthones », « Aborigines » or « Indigenous » people know the abnormal high of prevalence, complications, risk factors, and a high mortality compared to non autochthones of the same age group (4),(5). In 2007, the United Nation Organization launched the declaration of the right of these 5% of the world’s population who experiencing many Burden (6).

In the Sub Sahara Africa, the word « Indigenous » is contested (7),(8) and the scarcity of data on diabetes in this « indigenous « community makes the situation of diabetics complex in the « massai » of Kenya, « pygmies » and Mbororo » of Cameroon, and « San » of South Africa; these could compromise the effectiveness of the health services (9) and the stable development(10).

In Cameroon, the prevalence of diabetes moved from 1, 5% in 1990, to 6.6% in 2003. 80% of patients are still undiagnosed (11). Diabetes is one of the first causes of the mortality amongst patients on hemodialysis (12). As pastoralist, the Mbororo minority group is not well censored (13); they live a « complex » social relationship hence always considered as « strangers » (14). Most of the Mbororo of the East region has lost their « cheptel » due to conflicts, epidemics, climatic changes, and soil degradation. They progressively practice agriculture on borrowed soil (15). Health care is frequently inaccessible. Women, children and the old are suffering in their Camps; they could therefore develop type 2 diabetes. With our actual knowledge, no study has been carried out to determine the prevalence and the magnitude of diabetes among Mbororos. It is then necessary to investigate on their needs and risk of developing diabetes and Blood pressure like others « indigenous » populations in the world.

As to respond to this need, a project was initiated to ameliorate the access to diabetic health care in 5 villages of the Adamaoua and East region, in order to propose strategic health management of « indigenous ». As part of this project, we conducted a study based on the prevalence and risk factors of the type 2 diabetes amongst adults Mbororo in the Guiwa –Yangamo village.

To present this experience, we will explore the generalities on topic, followed by the method used and results, at the end, conclusion, recommendations and some perspectives. 


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