Diabetes mellitus is amongst
the largest health emergencies of the 21st century. However studies
have reported that a substantial proportion of people with diabetes mellitus
had not previously been diagnosed. On the other hand hypertension prevalence
has been reported to be on the increase. Hypertension has also been associated
with the development of diabetes mellitus. The study sought to determine the
prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in hypertensive patients attending
an outpatient clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe.
A cross sectional study was
conducted at Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals Outpatient Clinic. All
hypertensive patients attending the outpatient during the study period were
given the information about the study. All hypertensive patients who were
previously not diagnosed of diabetes mellitus who consented to participate in
the study were consecutively enrolled. A questionnaire was administered and blood
samples were collected for Glycosylated hemoglobin analysis. Glycosylated
hemoglobin was analysed using a Mindray BS800 Chemistry Analyser.
One hundred and four
hypertensive patients were enrolled into the study whose mean age was 60.91(± standard deviation of
14.06) years. Patients with
duration of hypertension greater than 10 years constituted 34% (35) of the
study population. The
prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was 22.1% (23). Among the
previously undiagnosed diabetic patients 56.5% (13) were females and 43.5% (10)
The prevalence of
undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was found to be 22, 1% among hypertensive
patients which is higher than that reported in Kenya but lower than that
reported in Uganda. Diabetes mellitus can be highly prevalent in hypertensive
patients thus there is need for constant monitoring for the development of
diabetes mellitus and further research using a national representative sample.
Diabetes mellitus, pre-diabetes,
 Bruno RM, Taddei S.
New-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients and mortality: timing is
everything. Eur Heart J. 2016 Mar 21;37(12):975–7.
 International Diabetes Federation.
International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas Seventh Edition [Internet].
2015 [cited 2016 Jul 20]. Available from: www.diabetesatlas.org
 Iloh GUP. Risk Factors of Pre-Diabetes
among Adult Nigerians with Essential Hypertension in a Resource-Constrained
Setting of a Primary Care Clinic in Eastern Nigeria. Am J Health Res.
 Joshi SR, Saboo B, Vadivale M, Dani
SI, Mithal A, Kaul U, et al. Prevalence of Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes
and Hypertension in India—Results from the Screening India’s Twin Epidemic
(SITE) Study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012 Jan;14(1):8–15.
 Korhonen P, Aarnio P, Saaresranta T,
Jaatinen P, Kantola I. Glucose Homeostasis in Hypertensive Subjects.
Hypertension. 2008 Apr 1;51(4):945–9.
 Lüders S, Hammersen F, Kulschewski A,
Venneklaas U, Züchner C, Gansz A, et al. Diagnosis of impaired glucose
tolerance in hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice. Int J Clin
 Ministry of Health and Child Welfare
Republic of Zimbabwe. 6th Essential Medicines list and standard treatment
guidelines for Zimbabwe. 2011.
 Mutebi E, Nakwagala FN, Nambuya A,
Otim M. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance among
hypertensive patients in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Afr J Diabetes Med
[Internet]. 2012 [cited 2016 Oct 28];20. Available from:
 Meme N, Amwayi S, Nganga Z, Buregyeya
E. Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes among hypertensive
patients attending Kiambu district Hospital, Kenya: a cross-sectional study. Pan
Afr Med J [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2016 Oct 28];22. Available from:
 Organisation mondiale de la santé.
Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014: attaining the nine global
noncommunicable diseases targets; a shared responsibility. Geneva: World Health
 Organization WH, others. Use of
glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: abbreviated
report of a WHO consultation. 2011 [cited 2016 Oct 28]; Available from:
 Orozco LJ, Buchleitner AM,
Gimenez-Perez G, Roqué i Figuls M, Richter B, Mauricio D. Exercise or exercise
and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: The Cochrane
Collaboration, editor. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet].
Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008 [cited 2016 Oct 28]. Available
 The International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee Report on the Role of the A1C Assay in the Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul 1;32(7):1327–34.