objective of this study is to find out how unused, expired, damaged and
unwanted medicines are handled and disposed of in health facilities in Lagos State,
South West Nigeria. An average hospital stocks between 2000 to 4000 drug items
for use by patients at any point in time. Hospitals and households have been
identified as the largest source of Pharmaceutical waste going into the sewer
large quantity of Pharmaceutical Waste generated in hospitals include regulated
hazardous and non-regulated hazardous Pharmaceutical waste and a significant
amount of these have been found in underground water and drinking water.
health facilities made up of 5 tertiary teaching/specialist hospitals, 25
secondary healthcare facilities and 165 primary healthcare centres were
evaluated using structured questionnaires to collect data. Data were analyzed
using SPSS version 20.
show that 85% of disposal of pharmaceutical waste was done by open burning, a
method that causes air pollution. There was no significant association between
category of Health Facility and method of disposal of pharmaceutical waste. Less
than 10% of Health Facilities had Pharmaceutical Waste Disposal(PWD) programmes
in place.15% of respondents see the need for designated drug take – back
centres and will consider establishing one. The need for additional training on
PWD was identified.
1. PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE:-
Solid, liquid or gas waste from Pharmaceutical products that can pose a
substantial hazard to human/animal health and the environment when not properly
managed (40 CFR part 261).
2. HAZARDOUS WASTE:-
Wastes with properties that make the product dangerous or potentially harmful
to human health or the environment.
3. HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL:-
A disposal facility where hazardous waste is placed in a land treatment
facility, a surface impoundment, an underground injection well, a salt dome
formation, a salt bed formation, an underground mine, a cave or a corrective
action management unit (40 CFR 260.10)
4. DRUG TAKE –BACK EVENTS:
- Any programme or series of programmes organized by the Drug Enforcement
Administration (DEA).Drug takes back initiative on which the public can return
unwanted, unused or expired drugs.
5. LISTED HAZARDOUS WASTES:-
Materials specifically listed by regulatory authorities as waste from
non-specific sources, specific sources or discarded chemical product.
6. OTC MEDICINES:–
Over -the- counter drugs that can be sold directly to a client without a
prescription from a healthcare professional.
 40 CFR 261
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