Prevalence of HIV in South Sudan

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.04.04.Art040

Authors : Etiki John Firstday


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. It attacks the body’s immune system by weakening the human body’s defence against disease and consequently makes one vulnerable to a number of potentially life-threatening infections and cancers. HIV is transmitted through exposure to infected blood and blood products and from infected mother to child during childbirth. This study is a cross sectional study on HIV Prevalence in South Sudan. The study reveals a prevalence rate of 2.7 % for the whole country and about 14 % in some areas with the most vulnerable being between the ages of 15 to 49. It also reveals that social factors like poverty and prevailing gender relations contribute to infection and reinfection among People Living with AIDS and their partners. This study identified that Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) and the United Nations (UN) are key in the fight against HIV in South Sudan; as the Government of South Sudan (GOSS) is battling with basic life need such as food and shelter for the population of South Sudan. There is therefore a need for a renewed campaign against HIV/AIDS.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Prevalence, NGO, UN, GoSS


[1] Abebe, Y. et al. (2003). HIV prevalence in 72,000 urban and rural male army recruits, Ethiopia. AIDS, 17:1835–1840.

[2] Adlington, R., & Burnett, A. (2014). Sexually transmitted infections as a consequence of rape. In: Peel, M. ed. Rape as a method of torture. (2014) London, Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture: AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (2015). HIV/AIDS, security and conflict: new realities, new responses. New York, Social Science Research Council (SSRC) and the Netherlands Institute of International Relations, AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (2011) Retrieved from :, accessed.

[3] AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative [web site] (2011). New York, AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative. Retrieved from :, accessed. Aging in Stride (2016). Retrieved from:

[4] Anastario, M.P., Tavarez, M..I & Chun H. (2010) Sexual risk behaviour among military personnel stationed at border-crossing zones in the Dominican Republic. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health. (2015)

[5] Asego, J. (2008). Youth in participatory education theatre against HIV/AIDS in Juba, South Sudan. XVII International AIDS Conference.

[6] Ba, O. et al. (2008). HIV/AIDS in African militaries: an ecological analysis. Medicine, Conflict and Survival.

[7] Baliunas, D. et. al. (2010). Alcohol consumption and risk of incident human immunodeficiency virus infection: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health.

[8] Barnett. T., Dutta, I. (2008). HIV and state failure: is HIV a security risk? New York, AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative.

[9] Barnett, T., Prins, G, (2006). HIV/AIDS and security: fact, fiction and evidence; a report to UNAIDS. International Affairs.

[10] Barnett, T.& Weston, M. (2008). Health, wealth, HIV and the economics hope. AIDS, 2(Suppl.

[11] Chirambo, K. &Steyn, J. (2009) AIDS and local government in South Africa. Pretoria, Institute for Democracy in South Africa.

[12] Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva, World Health Organization (, accessed 17 August 2010).

[13] Cornman, D.,C. (2010). Behavioural HIV prevention interventions [slide presentation]. 2010 DPKO. (2010). Monthly summary of military and police contribution to United Nations operations. New York, United Nations. Retrieved from :

[14] Fauci, A.,S., & Lane, H.,C.,(2005). Human immunodeficiency virus disease: AIDS and related disorders. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 16th Edition. New York, McGraw-Hill Medical Publications Division

[15] G8 (2008). Progress report by the G8 Africa Personal Representatives (APRs) on implementation of the Africa Action Plan. Tokyo, Group of 8 (G8) industrialized countries (, Accessed) 15 April 2011.

[16] Graeme, J.,S., Irvine, S.,S., Scott, M., & Kelleher, A.,D., et. al. (1997). Strategies of care in managing HIV. In Managing HIV. Sydney: Australasian Medical Publishing Company Limited 1997.

[17] International Centre for Ethnic Studies (2009). A survey of HIV/AIDS awareness and risky sexual behaviour in a vulnerable population in Sri Lanka. New York, AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (ASCI Research Report No. 22).

[18] Iqbal, Z., Zorn, C., (2010). Violent conflict and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa. Journal of Politics.

[19] Karutu, C., &McMahan (2008). Gearing up the Southern Sudanese military to prevent HIV/AIDS. [refWEAE0404] XVII International AIDS Conference.

[20] Kitahata, M.,M., Koepsell, T.,D., Deyo, R.,A., &Maxwell, C.,L., (1996). Physicians experience with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a factor in patients’ survival. N Engl.J Med 1996.

[21] Kaul, I., Grunberg, I., & Stern M, eds. (1999). Global public goods: international cooperation in the 21st century. New York, Oxford University Press.

[22] Kenny, L. (2009). Towards universal access to integrated HIV prevention, treatment, care and support: militaries and other uniformed services [slide presentation]. 38th International Congress on Military Medicine, Geneva, UNAIDS.

[23] Kershaw, R.J. (2008). The impact of HIV/AIDS on the operational effectiveness of military forces. New York, AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (ASCI Research Report No. 4;, accessed 15 April 2011).

[24] Kruijt, D. &Balconi, J. (2008). HIV/AIDS and the Central American uniformed services. New York, AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative. ASCI. Research Report No. 3. Retrieved from :, accessed.

[25] Kusasira, S. (2010). The importance and implications of knowing the HIV epidemic in the military: the Uganda Peoples’ Defence Forces [slide presentation].

[26] Kaiser, R., Kedamo, T., Lane, J., Kessia, G., & Downing, R., (2006). HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus 2 and behavioural surveillance among conflict-affected populations in Yei and Rumbek, Southern Sudan. AIDS.

[27] Likimani, S. (2007a). Medical and public health implications of HIV and AIDS in peacekeeping: field evaluation and analysis. Unpublished, DPKO.

[28] Likimani, S. (2007). Some implications of HIV at peacekeeping missions [slide presentation]. DPKO Training Workshop on HIV/AIDS, Brindisi, Italy. (2007).

[29] Lowicki-Zucca, M., & Karmin S, Dehne K-L (2009). HIV among peacekeepers and its likely impact on prevalence on host countries’ HIV epidemics. International Peacekeeping.

[30] Munywoki, M. (2008). HIV and AIDS in a peacekeeping scenario: the case of Sudan. [ref XVII International AIDS Conference 2-8 August 2008.

[31]    Marilynn, M. (2007). New York Times. Retrieved from: Conference, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania (2010).

[32] McCarthy, M.,C., Khalid, I.,O., & El Tigani (2008). A. HIV-1 infection in Juba, Southern Sudan. J of Med Virol 1995;46:18-20.

[33] Rawls, J. (1993). Political liberalism. New York, Columbia University Press.

[34] Sato, A. (2008). Is HIV/AIDS a threat to security in fragile states? New York, AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative, Social Science Research Council (ASCI Research Report No. 10).

[35] Secretary-General of the United Nations. (2009). Women and peace and security: report of The Secretary-General. New York, United Nations (S/2009/465).

[36] Garrett, L. (2005). HIV and national security: where are the links? New York, Council on Foreign Relations.

[37] Seeley, J. (2011). The longitudinal impact of HIV/AIDS on agriculture and rural livelihoods in Uganda: framing paper. Swindon, Economic and Social Research Council. Conclusion and recommendations 67

[38] Seeley, J., Dercon, S. & Barnett, T. (2010). The effects of HIV/AIDS on rural communities in East Africa: a 20-year perspective. Tropical Medicine and International Health.

[39] Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. New York, Alfred A. Knopf. Sexual Violence Research Initiative. (2007). Sexual violence and HIV. Pretoria, Sexual Violence Research Initiative.

[40]    Barongo, Borgdorff, Mosha, & Nicoll (1992). Employments in the formal sector associated with HIV infection.

[41] Serwadda, et. al. (1992). Employments in the formal sector associated with HIV infection.

[42] Shuper, P.A., et al. (2009). Alcohol as a correlate of unprotected sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS: review and meta-analysis. AIDS Behavior, 13:1021–1036.

[43] Sommers, M.S. et al. (2006). The effects of age and ethnicity on physical injury from rape.

[44] Sudan Tribune (2016). The menace of AIDS in South Sudan. Retrieved from:

?mot676.United Nations Medical Directors (2008). Position statement on HIV/AIDS. New York, United Nations Medical Directors (2008).

[45] Africa news (2016). Retrieved from:

[46] UNAIDS, AIDS. Epidemic update: June 2008. UNAIDS (2008). Retrieved from:

[47] UNGASS HIV/AIDS in Northern Sudan. UNGASS Report January 2008.

[48] UNGASS HIV/AIDS in Northern Sudan. UNGASS Report January 2015

[49] WHO (2015). Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents in resource-limited settings-towards universal access.

[50] WHO Report (2016). Antiretroviral therapy. Retrieved from:

[51] World Health Organization. (2007) WHO Case Definitions of HIV for Surveillance and Revised Clinical Staging and Immunological Classification of HIV-related disease in Adults and Children.

[52] Wegbreit, J., Bertozzi, S., DeMaria, & Padian, N.,S. (2006). Effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies in resource-poor countries: tailoring the intervention to the context. AIDS 2006;20:1217-1235.

[53] Wambua, P., Kay, A., Atsbeha, T., Khamis, G. (2007). Key findings from a qualitative BCC formative assessment study in Western Equatoria state, Southern Sudan, December 2007. [refTHPE0496] XVII International AIDS Conference 2-8 August 2008.