proliferation of counterfeit drugs is of public health concern and worthy of
Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the
perceived factors affecting the distribution of counterfeit drugs in community
pharmacies in Calabar municipality.
Methodology: This study is a cross sectional
descriptive study that employed the use of closed ended pretested questionnaire
for the collection of data. Data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0.
Results: Findings show that 23(74.2%) of the
respondents were males while 8(25.8%) were females. Majority of the respondents
28(90.8%) were community pharmacist, 2(6.5%) nurses and 1(3.2%) pharmacy
technician. Findings show that about 58% of purchase of drugs is been
determined by the medical/pharmacist representative while 42% of drugs
purchased is been determine by the distributor. Majority of the respondents
19(61.3%) buy their drugs from medical /pharmacist representative. Respondents
were able to detect counterfeit drugs through: customers report (19%), close
scrutiny (32%), regulatory officials (13%) and news/company alerts (36%).
Poverty 10(32%), greed 6(19%), heavy taxes/VAT on drugs 5(16%), government policies
towards health care delivery 5(16%), and poor implementation of relevant laws
by government agencies 5(16%) were factors identified as responsible for
proliferation of counterfeit drugs.
Conclusion: Poverty is a significant factor responsible for the
proliferation of counterfeit drugs. The most common means used by community
pharmacists to identify counterfeit drugs are scrutiny and news/alerts. There is need to create
more awareness, and seek collaboration with community stakeholders in the fight
against counterfeit drugs.
drugs, community pharmacists, drug distribution
. World Health Organization
(2012). Substandard and counterfeit
medicines. Fact sheet No. 275, 2012. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/2012/fs275/en/ (last accessed 6 ,march 2016).
. Akunyili DN (2006). Strategies employed
in combating drug counterfeiting in Nigeria. A paper presented at the WHO Workshop
in collaboration with Italian Medicines Agency and The International Federation
of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations, Held in Rome, Italy 15th-18th Feb. 2006
. Lewis, K. (2009). The fake and the fatal:
the consequences of counterfeits. The
Park Place Economist, XVII, 47-58.
. Newton PN, Lee SJ, Goodman C, Fernández
FM, Yeung S, Phanouvong S, Kaur H, Amin A, Whitty C, Kokwao G, Lindegardh N, Lukulay
P, White L, Day N, Green M, White N (2009) Guidelines for field surveys of the quality
of medicines: a proposal. PLoS Med 6
. Charles Clift (2010). Combating counterfeit,
falsified and substandard medicines: defining the way forward? centre on global
health security, ghbp 2010/01
. Opiyo, J.K. (2006). Responses of pharmaceutical firms to the
challenges of illegal imports. Nairobi: Nairobi University.MBA Thesis.
. Oso ,W.Y &Onen, D. (2009). Writing
Research Proposal and Report. Nairobi: Sitima
. Chambers, R. L., & Skinner, C. J.
(Eds.). (2003). Analysis of survey data.
John Wiley & Sons.
. Mugenda, O. M. &Mugenda, A. G., (2003),
Research Methods; Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Acts Press, Nairobi,
. Olusegun Akinyandenu (2013). Counterfeit
drugs in Nigeria: A threat to public health. African
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7(36),
pp. 2571-2576, academicjournals.org/AJPP
. Odili, Valentine U., Osemwenkha Sylvia,
Eke Esther U. and Okeri Henry A (2006). Identification of Counterfeit Drugs by Community
Pharmacists in Lagos State. Tropical
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 5(1), pp. 545-550
. Morris, J., & Stevens, P. (2006).
Counterfeit medicines in less developed countries. London: International Policy Network, May, 3, 6.
. Harris, J., Stevens, P., & Morris,
J. (2009). Keeping it real: Combating the spread of fake drugs in poor countries. International Policy Network
. Akiny, O. (2013). Counterfeit drugs in
Nigeria: A threat to public health. African
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7(36),
. Fadlallah, R., El-Jardali, F., Annan,
F., Azzam, H., &Akl, E. A. (2016). Strategies and Systems-Level Interventions
to Combat or Prevent Drug Counterfeiting: A Systematic Review of Evidence Beyond
Effectiveness. Pharmaceutical Medicine, 30(5), 263-276.