An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Infant and Child Survival Interventions in Yendi District

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.04.01.Art007

Authors : Sukerazu Ahmad Alhassan


Introduction: Child survival continues to improve worldwide. The total number of deaths of children under five years old fell from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.1 million in 2009. The mortality rate in children under five years old has fallen correspondingly from 89 per 1000 live births in 1990 to 60 per 1000 live births in 2009, representing a reduction of about one third. At the same time, the average annual rate of decline has accelerated over the period 2000–2009 compared with the 1990s. The level of mortality, however, remained alarmingly high in certain regions of the world.

Method: The study was a community-based cross sectional study. The study employed multi-stage random cluster sampling procedure to select households and villages in Yendi district. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from the study target population which included the caregivers, the community based agent and community health officers.

Results: Majority of the respondents practice exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of child’s age whiles other practice up to four months. A good percentage (48%) of the caregivers introduced complementary food at six months and beyond and fed their children more than five times in a day as indicated in the figure below. This showed good feeding practice by caregivers. Greater percentage (68.5%) of children are immunized through the outreach services and 31.5 were immunized through the static clinic sessions

Conclusion: The finding concluded that there was general improvement in the infant and child health interventions. These findings predict that improvement in outreach and community level service is potential for improving child survival. There is also low uptake of vitamin A supplementation and de-wormers. A significant number (30.3%) of new born missed OPV at birth. As the ages of the children increased coverage of antigens decreased. This finding is worrisome and needs attention by health providers.


[1]. Anaman, K.A. (2003). Research Methods in Applied Economics and Other Social Sciences. Bandar Seri Begawan: Brunei Press, Sendirian Berhad.

[2]. Bhutta ZA, Chopra M, Axelson H, Peter B, Jennifer B, (2010) Countdown to 2015 decade report (2000-2010): taking stock of maternal, newborn, and child survival. The Lancet

[3]. Black R.E., Morris S.S., Bryce J. (2003). Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? The lancent, 361:2226–34.

[4]. Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, P. S. (2001). Business Research Methods, New York: McGraw-Hill Company

[5]. Ghana Statistical Service and Ghana Health Service (2008). Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, Accra: Ghana ICF Macro Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.

[6]. Ghana Statistical Service and Ghana Health Service, (2010). Ghana Maternal Health Survey. Calverton Maryland: GSS, GHS, and Macro International, Inc.

[7]. Ghana Statistical Service, Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health and Orc Macro (1998). Ghana Service Provision assessment Survey, Calverton Maryland: GSS, GHS, and Macro International, Inc.

[8]. Hakim, C. (2000). Research Design: Successful Design for social and economic Research (2nd edn), London: Routledge. Health Systems Research: Proposal Development and Fieldwork, Volume I,

[9]. Kumekpor, T.K.B. (2002). Research methods and Techniques of social Research. Accra: Son Life Press and Services: p132

[10]. Meckel R. (2000).Infant Mortality: US Census International Database. Available from: [Accessed 5 July, 2012]

[11]. Rajaratnam J.K, Marcus J.R, Flaxman A.D, Wang H, & Levin-Rector A, (2010). Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4. Lancet; 375: 1988–2008.

[12]. Robson, C. (2002). Real world Research (2nd edn), Oxford, Blackwell

[13]. UNICE. (2001). Progress since the world summit for children: a statistical review. New York: UNICEF, (Accessed: March 24, 2011).

[14]. UNICEF (2008). Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival the 2008 Report. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.

[15]. UNICEF (2009). Mother and Newborn Health. New York: United Nations

[16]. United Nations (2009). The Millennium Development Goals Report 2009. New York: United Nations

[17]. Varkevisser C. M., Pathmanathan I. and, Brownlee A. (2003). Designing and Conducting Health Systems Reseach Projects: Health System Research Training Serirs. Vol II part 1, Ottawa: IDRC and WHO

[18]. Who Regional Office for Africa, (2010). Ghana Factsheets of Health Statistics 2010. Retrieved from: or 13:32

[19]. WHO (2009). World Health Statistics 2009. Geneva: WHO

[20]. WHO (2011). World health statistics 2011. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO publications.

[21]. Yendi District Health Management Team (2011). Annual performance review: 2011 programme of work, Yendi: Municipal Health Directorate