The Burden of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Communities in Southern Nigeria by Alphonsus Rukevwe Isara and Patrick Otamere Okundia
is a review of the article titled "The burden of hypertension and diabetes
mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria" written by the duo of Alphonsus
Rukevwe Isara & Patrick Otamere Okundia as published in the journal Pan African
Medical Journal of February, 2015, volume 20: page 103, with DOI number; doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.103.5619,
and accessed from, http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/20/103/full/.
The review covered the evaluation of related literature, the structure of the article,
authority, currency, accuracy, relevance, objectivity and stability. Furthermore,
appraisal of the tables, recent advances, credibility and accessibility of the article
were carried out. The objective of the original article was to determine the prevalence
of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among adult residents of rural communities
in southern Nigeria. Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes & obesity
evidently had been on the increase and now are of public health importance in rural
communities of developing countries, where it has been shown to complicate the outcome
of cardiovascular diseases. The authors employed a cross- sectional survey method
to screen adult residents of the selected rural communities in Southern Nigeria.
Blood pressure, random blood sugar, weight, and height were measured and Body Mass
Index was calculated from height /weight, as well, the respondents were interviewed
with the aid of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The result
showed one-third of the participants had hypertension, one–third were obese/ overweight,
while about 4% had diabetes amongst others. Overall, this is an objectively written
article, credible in all ramifications and has contributed to the body of knowledge
on the topic especially in this part of the world. The challenge of hypertension,
diabetes, and obesity is enormous and requires urgent intervention to forestall
the rising trend of these disease conditions and its attendant complications in
Hypertension, Diabetes, Obesity, Overweight, Prevalence, Rural Communities.
A.R. & Bhopal R.S. (2008). A systematic review on the prevalence of diabetes
overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in Ghanaians and Nigerians. Science direct
journal of Public health. 122 (2), 173-183. Doi 10.1016/j.puhe.2007.06.012.
M.R. & Mato, C.N. (2008). Obesity in Nigeria: Current trends and management.
Nigerian Medical Practitioner. 54 (1), 11-15. Retrieved from
E.O., Akinwusi, P.O., Adebimpe, W.O., Isawumi, M.A., Hassan, M.B., Olowe, O.A.,
Adewole, T.A. (2013). Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of
Osun State, southwestern Nigeria. International journal of general medicine. 6,
317-322. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S42905
M.M. & Damasceno A. (2012). Hypertension in developing Countries. The Lancet.
380 (9841), 611-619.
. IDF (2006):
The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. Retrieved from
. Iloh G.U.P.,
Amadi A.N., Nwankwo B.O. & Ugwu V.C. (2011). Obesity in adult Nigerians: A study
of its pattern and common primary co-morbidities in a rural Mission General Hospital
in Imo state, south-eastern Nigeria. Nigerian journal of clinical practice. 14 (2),
J.H., Chaturvedi N. & Pappas G. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity
and their association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Indo-Asian population.
Canadian Medical Association Journal. 175(9), 1071-1077. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.060464.
A.O & Gilles H.M. (2003). Short Textbook of Public Health Medicine for the Tropics,
4th Ed., London, Hodder Arnold. 236-237.
. Opie L.H.
& Seedat. Y.K. (2005). Hypertension in Sub-Saharan African Populations. American
Heart Association Journal. 112, 3562-3568. Doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA218. Retrieved
K. (2013). Park's textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 21st Ed., Jabalpur,
India. Bhanot. 344-346.
. Shaw J.E.,
Sicree R.A. & Zimmet P.Z. (2009). Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes
for 2010 and 2030. Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Australia. 87(1), 4–14.
N. (2015).How does handheld BMI machine work? Retrieved from
I.I, Ijoma C.K., & Onodugo D.O. (2010). A community-based study of hypertension
and cardio-metabolic syndrome in semi-urban and rural communities in Nigeria. BMC
Health Services Research. 10(71) DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-71.
. WHO. (2003).
World Health Organization: International Society of Hypertension Writing Group.
World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement
on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 21, 1983–1999.
. WHO, (2015).
Diabetes Fact sheet. Retrieved from
. Website: Alphonsus
Rukevwe Isara & Patrick Otamere Okundia, 2015, ‘The burden of hypertension
and diabetes mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria', Pan African
Medical Journal, February 2015, 20:103 doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.103.5619,
viewed 01 June 2015