Does Pregnancy Potentiate the Occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions to Antiretroviral Drugs among Nigerian Women?
can occur from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The
use of Anti-Retroviral Drugs (ARD or ARVs) in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission
can significantly reduce this mode of transmission. The use of ARVs has been associated
with occurrence of noxious effects known as Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). It is
well known that women react more to drugs than men and some reasons proffered by
some literature include hormonal differences in both sexes; but it is not known
whether pregnancy can increase the chances of women reacting adversely to ARVs.
The objective of the research is to investigate whether pregnancy can potentiate
the occurrence of ADRs to ARVs.
The research employed a cross sectional Study Design on 150 HIV positive pregnant
women, who were receiving ARVs at the time of study but who started ARVs before
the current pregnancy. A simple Random Sampling Technique was employed in selecting
the subjects. A well-structured questionnaire was applied on the selected women
to collect data.
The result was analyzed in a Mcnemar’s test using Statistical Package for Social
Sciences to determine the strength of association between the variables pregnancy
and occurrence of ADRs for both the pregnant and the non-pregnant statuses of the
The result showed that pregnancy does not contribute to the occurrence of Adverse
Drug Reactions to Antiretroviral drugs among HIV pregnant women.
Keywords: Pregnancy, adverse, drug, reaction, ARVs, potentiate.
et al. Drug use behavior of pregnant women in rural India (JPMA 61:381; 2011).
et al: Nigerian prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency
virus program: The journey so far Journal of HIV & Human Reproduction (Editorial):
Jan-Jun 2013 • Vol 1 • Issue 1
Pregnancy Association (APA). HIV/AIDS during
pregnancy. Downloaded on March 6, 2016 from: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/hiv-aids-during-pregnancy/
Arlene D. Bardeguez, Jane C. Lindsey, Maureen Shannon
et al Adherence to Antiretrovirals among US Women during
and after pregnancy Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.
2008 August 1; 48(4): 408–417. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31817bbe80.
. Brown, M. T., & Bussell,
J. K. (2011). Medication Adherence: WHO Cares? Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 86(4),
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV/AIDS-About HIV/AIDS
Stephen Durham (1998). Adverse reactions to drugs BMJ 1998; 316 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7143.1511 (Published 16 May 1998)
A Lewis HIV/sexually transmitted
infection epidemiology, management and control in the IUSTI Africa region: focus
on sub-Saharan Africa. Sex Transm Infect 2011;
87: ii10eii13. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2011-050178
on March 4, 2016 from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html
. Eluwa et al. Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral
therapy (ARVs): Incidence, type and risk factors in Nigeria BMC Clinical Pharmacology, Feb 2012. 1.36 · DOI:
. Grant, Philip M.; Cotter, Aoife
G. Tenofovir and bone health
Opinion in HIV & AIDS: May 2016 - Volume 11 - Issue 3 - p 326–332 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000248.
BONE COMPLICATIONS IN HIV: Edited by Patrick W.G. Mallon and Todd T. Brown. Downloaded
. Haochu Li, Gifty Marley, Wei
Ma, Chongyi Wei, Mellanye Lackey, Qingyan Ma, Francoise Renaud, Marco Vitoria, Rachel
Beanland, Meg Doherty, Joseph D. Tucker (2017). The role of ARV associated adverse drug reactions in influencing adherence
among HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis.
Journal article in AIDS and Behavior Feb 2017
. I-Base. Guides, HIV, Pregnancy and women’s health-Transmission during labour and delivery (intrapartum
transmission). Downloaded on March 6, 2016 from: http://i-base.info/guides/pregnancy/labour
Tourret, Gilbert Deray, Corinne
Isnard-Bagnis Tenofovir Effect on the Kidneys of HIV-Infected
Patients: A Double-Edged Sword? Published
online before print September 19, 2013, doi:
10.1681/ASN.2012080857JASN October 2013 vol. 24 no. 10 1519-1527
. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Factsheets 2015- Global statistics 2015. Downloaded from: http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/20150901_FactSheet_2015_en.pdf
. Linda Morison The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS British Medical Bulletin 2001;58: 7–18
. Margaret Ann Miller.
Gender-Based Differences in the Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals—The Food and Drug Administration’s
Journal of Toxicology, 20:149–152, 2001 1091-5818/01 $12.00 + .00
. Marilia Santini-Oliveira, Ruth Khalili Friedman, Valdilea Gonc¸ alves Veloso, Cynthia Braga Cunha,
José Henrique Pilotto, Luana Monteiro Spindola Marins, Esaú Custódio João, Thiago
Silva Torres, Beatriz Grinsztejn. Incidence of antiretroviral
adverse drug reactions in pregnant women in two referral centers for HIV prevention
of mother-to-child-transmission care and research in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil B R A Z
J I N F E C T D I S . 2 0 1 4;1 8(4):372–378
. Marius Rademaker Do Women Have More
Adverse Drug Reactions? American Journal of Clinical Dermatology December 2001, Volume 2, Issue 6, pp 349-351.
Downloaded from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00128071-200102060-00001
. Muaed Jamal Alomar Factors affecting the development
of adverse drug reactions Saudi Pharmaceutical
Journal (2014) 22, 83–94
. Ngemu EK, Khayeka-Wandabwa C, Kweka EJ,
Choge JK, Anino E, Oyoo-Okoth E Effectiveness of option B highly active antiretroviral
therapy (HAART) prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in pregnant HIV
Res Notes. 2014 Jan 21; 7:52. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-52.
. P. Michael Ho; Chris L. Bryson
and John S. Rumsfeld (2009). Medication Adherence. Circulation 2009; 119:3028-3035, originally published June 15, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.768986
. P.O Nkwo Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission
of Huma Immunodeficiency Virus: The Nigerian Perspective. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2012 Jan-Jun; 2(1): 56-65. Doi: 104104/2141-9248.96940
. Ruth E. Tuomala, David E. Shapiro,
Lynne M. Mofenson, Yvonne Bryson, Mary Culnane, Michael D. Hughes, M.J. O'Sullivan,
Gwendolyn Scott, Alice M. Stek, Diane Wara, Marc Bulterys, Antiretroviral Therapy during Pregnancy and the
Risk of an Adverse Outcome. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:1863-1870June 13, 2002DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa991159 Downloaded
. The US Department of Health & Human Services.
About HIV & AIDS: How is HIV transmitted? Downloaded on March 5, 2016 from:
. Thorne C, Patel D , Newell
risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected women treated with highly active
antiretroviral therapy in Europe. AIDS 2004; 18:2337–2339.
Downloaded from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15577551
. UNICEF, Nigeria PMTCT Factsheet, 2010. Downloaded
on March 2, 2016 from:
. Victor O. Dinwoke, Charles I. Okafor: Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission
(PMTCT) Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): Perceptions and Practice Of Antenatal
Clients In Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol, 30 (2), August 2013
. WHO. International drug monitoring: the role of
National Centres. Tech Rep Ser WHO 1972, no 498
. World Health Organization (WHO) July 2015: HIV/AIDS
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Downloaded on February 24, 2016 from: http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/mtct/en/