Determinants of Psycho-active Substance Abuse among Commercial Motor Drivers in Kawo Motor Park Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.08.02.Art007

Authors : Giwa H. K, Akinboye, D. O, Ugwu, E. O, Baduka A. P


Objective: The study investigated the determinants of psychoactive substance abuse among commercial motor drivers in Kawo motor park Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: The study is a cross-sectional design guided by Social Cognitive Theory. It used 37-item validated questionnaire to collect data from 270 respondents who consented and multistage sampling technique was adopted. Variables of environmental, cognitive and behavioral factors of substance abuse were measured. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 23 to compute mean, frequencies, standard deviation and way of variance analysis was used to answer the research questions. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level using Pearson’s correlation.

Results: Majority of respondents were male drivers 98.8%, female 1.2%, most respondents are within 31 – 40 years (35.5%) and in their productive age. Environmental factors showed mean ±SD of 5.43±2.55, cognitive factors showed mean ±SD of 12.34±3.88, behavioral factors revealed mean ±SD of 16.64±2.95 while the level of practice showed mean ±SD of 1.575±1.42.

Conclusion: Environmental determinants of psychoactive abuse such as peer pressure, parental influence, availability of drugs within the park contribute to drug abuse by commercial drivers. It was discovered that despite awareness of negative consequences of substance abuse, drivers have not been able to refrain from abuse of substances. Urgent attention of government to enact laws and enforce it to control the production and availability of such substances.

Keywords: Determinants, Psychoactive, Abuse, Commercial drivers.


[1].   Adadu, P.M.A., Akpama, E.G., & Ekanem, R.S., (2012). The challenges of socio-psychological factors as correlates of adolescent students’ cigarette smoking in Cross River State, Nigeria. African Research Review: An International Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 393-401.

[2].   Adelekan, M. L., Makanjuola, A. B., Ndom, R.J. E., Fayeye, J.O., Adegoke, A.A., et al., (2001) 5-Yearly Monitoring of Trends of Substance Use Among Secondary School Students in Ilorin, Nigeria, 1988-1998. West African Journal of Medicine. 20, 28-36.

[3].   Abdu-Raheem (2013). Reasons substance abuse: Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology. 15(2).

[4].   Ajibade David & Adefolaju Toyin (2017). Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 8(5 S1).

[5].   Ajibade, B. L., Uvomata, M. Ebele., Akinpelu A. O., Adeleke, M.A., Fabiyi B.O., Akinlabi, Tosim (2016). Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Selected commercial Motorcyclist in Ogbomoso Metropolis, Oyo State Nigeria. International Journal of Health and Psychology Research 4(3), 1-7.

[6].   Alti-Muazu, M & Aliyu, Alhaji., (2008). Prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial motorcyclists and its health and social consequences in Zaria, Nigeria. Annals of African medicine. 7, 67-71.

[7].   Anthanasia, H., Papalimperi, Sotirios, A., Athanaselis, & Stavroula, A., Papadodima, (2019). Incidence of fatalities of road traffic accidents associated with alcohol consumption and the use of psychoactive drugs: A 7year survey (2011 – 2017).

[8].   Bashirian, M., (2014). Prevalence and factors associated with tramadol abuse among college students in West Iran; Application of the theory of planned behaviour. Avicenna J. Neuropsychophysio (1), E20314.

[9].   Brand, E., Joseph & Zhongzhen Zhao, (2017). Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids. Front Pharmacol. 8:108. Retrieved from:

[10].  Brooks-Russell, A., Conway, K.P., Liu, D., Xie, Y., Vullo, G. C., Li, K., & Simons-Morton, B., (2015). Dynamic patterns of adolescent substance use: Results from a nationally representative sample of high school students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 76, 962-970.

[11].  Bryant A.L., Schulenberg J.E., O'Malley P.M., Bachman J.G., Johnston L.D., (2003). Substance use during adolescence: A 6-year, multiwave national longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 2003;13(3),361–397.

[12].  Boostani and Derakhshan, (2012). Tramadol induced seizure: A 3-Year study. Caspian journal of Internal medicine. Babol University of Medical science.

[13].  Calafat, A., García, F., Juan, M., Becoña, E., & Fernández-Hermida, J.R. (2014). Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 138, 185-192. Retrieved from: http://j.drugalcdep.

[14].  Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Surveillance summaries, morbidity and mortality, Weekly Report. 61(4), 1-162.

[15].  Christopher Okpataku, (2015): Drug Use Disorders Among Long Distance Commercial Vehicle Drivers. African journal of drug and alcohol studies, 15(2), CRISA Publications.

[16].  Downey, L.A., King, R., Papafotiou, K., Swann, P., Ogden, E., Boorman, M., Stough C., (2013). The effects of cannabis and alcohol on simulated driving: influences of dose and experience. Accid Anal Prev. 5, 879-86.

[17].  Edmarlo, Girotto., Arthur, Eumann Mesas., Selma, Maffei de Andrade., & Marcela, Maria Birolim., (2014). Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review. BMJ journal: Occupation and environmental medicine.

[18].  Elizabeth, B., Robertson, Susan L., David, & Suman, A. Rao., (2019). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Prevention Coalition/Advancing Addiction Science Journal.

[19].  Eslami, A. A., Fathian Dastgerdi Z., Ghofranipour, F., & Mostafavi, F., (2018). Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Social Cognitive Scales Related to Substance Use Behavior in Iranian Adolescents. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 7(1).

[20].  Fawibe, M., & Shittu, A.O., (2011). Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among undergraduate of the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 14(2), 201-5.

[21].  Godley M.D., Kahn J.H., Dennis M.L., Godley S.H., Funk R.R., (2005). The stability and impact of environmental factors on substance use and problems after adolescent outpatient treatment for cannabis abuse or dependence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 19(1), 62–70. Retrieved from:,1037/0893-164x.19.1.62.

[22].  Girotto E., Mesas, A.E., deAndrade, S.M., & Birolim. M. M., (2014). Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 71-76. Retrieved from:

[23].  Halperin, A.C., Smith, S.S., Heiligenstein, E., Brown, D & Fleming, M.F., (2010). Cigarette smoking and associated health risks among students at five universities, Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12(2), 96- 104.

[24].  Johnston L.D., O’Malley P.M., Bachman J.G., Schulenberg J. E. (2010). Monitoring the future: National results on adolescent drug use. Overview of key findings, 2009. National Institutes of Health, NIH Publication No. 10-7583.

[25].  Ibrahim A. W., Yerima M. M., Pinder S. K., Onyencho V. C., Ahmed H. K., Machina B. K., Shehu S., Rabbebe I. B., Wakil M. A., (2017). Tramadol abuse among patients attending an addiction clinic in North – Eastern Nigeria: Outcome of a four-year retrospective study. Advances in psychology and Neuroscience. (2), 31 – 37.

[26].  Liu, Z. M., WH, Lianz and Ren Z. H., (2014). Drug abuse and dependence potential of tramadol. Acta pharmacological sinuca, 20(1), 52 – 54.

[27].  Lundberg, Kelly, M.D., (2017). Environmental Risk Factors. The Science of Addiction: Genetics and the Brain.

[28].  Makanjuola, A.B., Aina, O.F., & Onigbogi, L., (2014). Allow and other Psychoactive Substance use among Tanker Drivers in Lagos State. Nigeria, European Scientific Journal, 10(15) 1857 – 7881.

[29].  Meier, M.H., Caspi, A., Ambler, A., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Keefe, R.S., McDonald, K., Ward, A., Poulton, R., & Moffitt, T.E., (2012). Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. 109(40). Retrieved from:

[30].  Moses Orhero, (2018). Prevalence and factors responsible for tramadol abuse among patients in Hospital in Nigeria.

[31].  National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA,2014). Youth Prevalence rate and Mortality rate on Heroin, Cocaine and other drugs.

[32].  Okafor, C.J., Udofia, O & Onyuku, T., (2016). Pattern of psychoactive substance use among long distance commercial drivers in Calabar, Nigeria. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal. 8(3), 1-9.

[33].  Olaniyi, (2016). Occupation, Substance Abuse, and Deviant Behaviors in Nigeria: A case Study of Commercial Vehicles, Lagos State. Bangladash e-Journal of Sociology-15(2).

[34].  Omolase, B.O., Afolabi, O.T., & Omolase, C.O., (2011). Drink driving among commercial drivers in a Nigerian community. Middle East Journal of Psychiatry and Alzheimers. 2(2), 15-19.

[35].  Saravanan, C., & Heidhy, I., (2014). Psychological problems and psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(18), 7629-34.

[36].  Schulenberg, J.E., Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Miech, R.A., & Patrick, M.E., (2017). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2016: Volume II, college students and adults ages 19–55. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.

[37].  Unackwukwu, G.C., & Nwankwo, C.A., (2003). Drug dependence among the youth of Nigeria: Implication for development, The Educational Psychologist, 1, 85-103.

[38].  UNODC, (2018). World Drug Report Day. Retrieved from:

[39].  Umar, Yunusa., Umar, Lawal Bello., Munir, Idris., Mahfuz, Mohammed Haddad., & Dalhatu, Adamu., (2017). Determinants of Substance Abuse Among Commercial Bus Drivers in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. American Journal of Nursing science 6(2) 125 – 130.

[40].  Usman, S.O., & Ipinmoye, T.O., (2015). Driving under influence among long distance commercial drivers in Akure, South West Region. Nigeria, Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science, 4(3), 128-131.

[41].  Welcome, N., Pereverzew O., (2010) Socio-demographic correlates of substance use among long distance commercial vehicle drivers, Journal of Medicine in the Tropics, 18, 6-18.

[42].  W.H.O (2016). Drug use and road safety: a policy brief to provide up-to-date information on drug use and road safety. Retrieved from:

[43].  World Drug Report (2018): Opioid crisis prescription drug abuse expands; Cocaine and Opium hit record highs