Background: Suboptimal antiretroviral
adherence remains a global concern in the care for HIV infected patients. It brings
about complications in the management process of the disease. This study determined
the attitude, perception and antiretroviral adherence level of HIV infected patients
in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional study
that utilized qualitative method of data collection.
Purposive sampling was used to select two tertiary hospitals while gender and age bracket
was used to select 62 patients that participated in the study. Focus group discussion
(FGD) guide was used to obtained information from the participants. A total of eight
FGD was conducted with at least seven participants in each group. All discussions
were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed.
Results: Majority (77%) of the participants were females and
80% were traders by occupation. Majority of the participants expressed concerns
about the duration of antiretroviral medication while majority responded positively
as regards the continuity of the drug even without any symptoms of sickness. Most
of the participants perceived antiretroviral medication as beneficial and suboptimal
adherence as a threat to wellbeing. Perceived barriers identified in this study
include fear of disclosure, distance to health facility and hospital waiting time.
Majority of the participants in this study had optimal adherence.
Conclusion: Optimal adherence in HIV care is essential. To achieve
this, it is important that patients cultivate the right attitude and perception
towards antiretroviral medication. Health promotion interventions that seeks to
modify and reinforce patients’ attitude, perception and adherence pattern is therefore
National Agency for the Control of AIDS, Federal
Republic of Nigeria Global AIDS Response Country Progress Report, 2014, Date of
Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey
Preliminary Findings, National Summary Sheet, 2019, Date of access: 14/3/2020. https://naca.gov.ng/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/NAIIS-PA-NATIONAL-FACTSHEET-FINAL.pdf.
Palmisano, L., and Vella, S., 2011, A brief
history of antiretroviral therapy of HIV infection: success and challenges. Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 47, 44-48.
Montoya, J. L., Wing, D., Knight, A., and Moore,
D. J., 2015, Development of a Health intervention (iSTEP) to promote physical activity
among people living with HIV. Journal of International Association of Providers
of Aids care, 14(6), 471–5.
Kobin, A. B., and Sheth, N. U., 2011, Levels
of adherence required for virologic suppression among newer antiretroviral medications.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45, 372–379.
Bezabhe, W. M., Chalmers, L., Bereznicki, L.
R., Peterson, G. M., Bimirew, M. A., and Kassie, D. M., 2014, Barriers and Facilitators
of Adherence to Antiretroviral Drug Therapy and Retention in Care among Adult HIV-Positive
Patients: A Qualitative Study from Ethiopia. Public Library of Sciences One, 9(5),
Iacob, S. A., Iacob, D. G., and Jugulete, G.,
2017, Improving the Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy, a Difficult but Essential
Task for a Successful HIV Treatment-Clinical Points of View and Practical Considerations.
Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8, 831.
Global Information and education on HIV and
AIDS. Global HIV and AIDS Statistics, 2018. Date of access: 17/3/2020.
Kaufman, M., Cornish, F., Zimmerman, R., and
Johnson, B., 2014, Health Behavior Change Models for HIV Prevention and AIDS Care:
Practical Recommendations for a Multi-Level Approach. Journal of Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome, 66, S250-S258.
Lambert, V., and Lambert, C., 2013, Qualitative
descriptive research: an acceptable design. Pacific Rim International Journal of
Nursing Research, 16, 255–256.
Curioso, W. H., Kepka, D., Cabello, R., Segura,
P., and Kurth, A., 2010, Understanding the facilitators and barriers of antiretroviral
adherence in Peru: A qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 10(1), 13.
Chen, W., Shiu, C., Simoni, J., Fredriksen-Goldsen,
K., Zhang, F., Starks, H., and Zhao, H., 2009, Attitudes toward Antiretroviral Therapy
and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Chinese HIV-Infected Patients. Journal
of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 20(3), 203–217.
Hornschuh, S., Dietrich, J., Tshabalala, C.,
and Laher, F., 2017, Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence: Knowledge and Experiences
among Adolescents and Young Adults in Soweto, South Africa. AIDS Research and Treatment,
Azia, I. N., Mukumbang, F. C., Van Wyk, B.,
2016, Barriers to adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a regional hospital in
Vredenburg, Western Cape, South Africa. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine,
Ankrah, N. A., Koster, E. S., Mantel-Teeuwisse,
A. K., Arhinful, D. K., Agyepong, I. A., and Lartey, M., 2016, Facilitators and
barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in Ghana. Patient
Preference and Adherence, 10, 329-337.
Kasumu, L. O., and Mobolanle, Balogun, 2014,
Knowledge and attitude towards antiretroviral therapy and adherence pattern of HIV
patients in southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Infectious Control, 10,
Adeniyi, O. V., Ajayi, A. I., Ter Goon, D.,
Owolabi, E. O., Eboh, A., and Lambert, J, 2018, Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral
therapy among pregnant women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. BMC Infectious Disease,