Tuberculosis Incidence and case Notification Rate in the North Central States of Nigeria in 2018: Cross-States Comparison

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.08.02.Art034

Authors : Opeyemi Emmanuel, Samuel Ogiri, Ayodele Awe, Patrobas Dashi Philips, Fadare, A. Omoniyi


Aim: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major killer infectious disease globally especially among vulnerable young adults. TB case notification and incidences provide good estimates of the TB burden of a country. The aim of this article therefore is to provide an insight into the TB situation in the six states that made up the North Central Zone (NCZ) of Nigeria in 2018.

Methods: Retrospective epidemiological data that are routinely collected by the respective TB control programme in the NCZ. TB case notification is calculated by dividing the number of TB cases notified in 2018 by the extrapolated population (from 2006 census population) for the state expressed per 100,000 populations in the year under review.

Results: TB case notification rate (CNR) is highest in Nasarawa state (87/100,000) when compared with the other states, closely followed by Benue state (73/100,000). Kwara state (22/100,000) has the lowest CNR, others are: FCT (37/100,000), Kogi state (27/100,000), Niger state (35/100,000), and Plateau state (57/100,000). TB incidence in the different states closely mirrors the TB CNR.

Conclusion: TB case finding intervention in the NCZ should be contextualized based on prevailing TB driving factors if the aim of effective TB program control will be achieved with focus on Nasarawa state given its high CNR and incidence in the region.


[1]. World Health Organization. (2019). Global TB report. Geneva Switzerland. Retrieved from

[2]. TB Facts.Org.(2019). TB Statistics- Incidence, Prevalence, High Burden. Retrieved from

[3]. Stop TB Partnership. (2015). The paradigm shifts 2016-2020: Global plan to end TB. Retrieved from hift_2016-2020_StopTBPartnership.pdf

[4]. Nigeria National TB Control Program. (2017). National TB Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Retrieved from

[5]. National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Population and Vital Statistics. Retrieved from

[6].  Ukwaja KN, Alobu I, Ifebunandu NA, Osakwe CP. Trends in treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Southeastern Nigeria, 1999 - 2008. Ital J Public Health. 2012; 9(4): 1-7.

[7].    Talukder K, Salim MA, Jerin I, Sharmin F, Talukder MQ, Marais B J, et al. Intervention to increase detection of childhood tuberculosis in Bangladesh. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(1):705.

[8].      Yassin MA, Datiko DG, Tulloch O, Markos P, Aschalew M, Shargie EB, et al. Innovative communitybased approaches doubled tuberculosis case notification and improve treatment outcome in Southern Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 2013;8(5): e63174. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[9].      Mhimbira, A. F, Cuevas, E. L, Dacombe, R, Mkopi, A and Sinclair, D. (2017). Interventions to increase tuberculosis case detection at primary healthcare or communitylevel services. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011432.pub2. Available at

[10].  Huseynova S Et al. Estimating tuberculosis burden and reporting in resource-limited countries: a capture-recapture study in Iraq. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013;17(4):462–7.

[11].  Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Global Report. UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013.

[12].  Kurhasani, X, Hafizi, H, Toci, E and Burazeri, G. (2012). Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison. DOI: 10.5455/msm.2014.26.55-58 Available at

[13].  Kurhasani X, Hafi zi H. Incidence and case-notifi cation rate of tuberculosis in Kosovo for the period 2000-2010. Albanian Medical Journal. 2013: 1: 51-54.

[14].  Kranzer K, AfnanHolmes H, Tomlin K, Golub JE, Shapiro AE, Schaap A, et al. The benefits to communities and individuals of screening for active tuberculosis disease: a systematic review. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;17(4):43246.

[15].  Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Williams BG, Dye C, Raviglione M. Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: the role of risk factors and social determinants. Social Science and Medicine 2009;68(12):22406.

[16].  Mfinanga SG, Mutayoba BK, Kahwa A, Kimaro G, Mtandu R, Ngadaya E, et al. The magnitude and factors associated with delays in management of smear positive tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Health Services Research 2008; 8:158.

[17].  Parsons LM, Somoskövi A, Gutierrez C, Lee E, Paramasivan CN, Abimiku A, et al. Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in resourcepoor countries: challenges and opportunities. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2011;24(2):31450.

[18].  Ho,J, Fox,J.G, and Marais, J.B. (2017) Passive case finding for tuberculosis is not enough. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.09.023 Retrieved from;year=2016;volume=5;issue=4;spage=374;epage=378;aulast=Ho

[19].  Houben, M.G.J.R; Menzies, A.N; Sumner, T; Huynh, H.G; Arinaminpathy, N Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, D.J. et al. (2016). Feasibility of achieving the 2025 WHO global tuberculosis targets in South Africa, China, and India: a combined analysis of 11 mathematical models. DOI: Available at

[20].  Adejumo, O., Daniel, O., Abdur-Razzaq, H., Shogbamimu, Y., Femi-Adebayo, T., Adepoju, V., . . . Sodipo, O. (2017). Trend of tuberculosis case notification and treatment outcome in Lagos State, Nigeria: a 5-year retrospective study. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 111(7), 300-307. Retrieved from

[21].  Baltussen R, Floyd K, Dye C. Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies for tuberculosis control in developing countries. BMJ. 2005; 331: 1364.

[22].  Corbett EL, Bandason T, Duong T, Dauya E, Makamure B, Churchyard GJ, et al. Comparison of two active casefinding strategies for communitybased diagnosis of symptomatic smearpositive tuberculosis and control of infectious tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe (DETECTB): a clusterrandomised trial. Lancet 2010;376(9748):124453.

[23].  Datiko DG, Lindtjørn B. Health extension workers improve tuberculosis case detection and treatment success in southern Ethiopia: a community randomized trial. PLoS ONE 2009;4(5): e5443.

[24].  Chadha, K.V and Praseej, P. (2019). Active tuberculosis case finding in India–The way forward. Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. Available online at Gebreegziabher SB, Yimer SA, Bjune GA. Tuberculosis case notification and Treatment outcome in west gojjam zone North West Ethiopia. J Tuberc Res. 2016; 4: 23-33.

[25].  Floyd, K, Glaziou, P, Zumla, A, Raviglione, M. (2018). The global tuberculosis epidemic and progress in care, prevention, and research: an overview in year 3 of the End TB era. Retrieved from


[26].  Glaziou P, Falzon D, Floyd K, Raviglione M. Global epidemiology of tuberculosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2013; 34(1):3-16.