Tuberculosis Medication Adherence among TB-HIV Co-infected Persons undergoing Concomitant Treatment in Selected Local Governments in a North Central State in Nigeria

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.08.02.Art035

Authors : Boluwatife C. Ogunjimi, Catherine O. Agbede


The aim of this study was to investigate Tuberculosis medication adherence among patients undergoing concomitant treatment for HIV and TB in selected Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria. The study adopts a cross-sectional descriptive survey design using a quantitative instrument to generate information on factors that have significant influence on TB medication adherence among persons using concurrent TB-HIV medication.

The overall rate of adherence was 72.7%. Perception of TB disease and TB medication, Family and peer support, Health Service factors, Media and Policy were positively and significantly associated with adherence practice among participants in the study. The study revealed a high prevalence of knowledge (96%) (9.6±0.86) about TB disease among respondents, although knowledge had no significant association with TB medication adherence among the study group. In relation to the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, analysis of age, gender and level of education did not reveal any significant association with medication adherence and likewise marital status or living arrangement.

The study concluded that factors associated with adherence TB medication adherence among persons undergoing concomitant treatment are factors that could be modified with concerted efforts and strategies by stakeholders and health programs to improve adherence levels and cause a decline in the level of non-adherence (27.3%) reported in the study. The study recommends further studies to assess factors that could provide evidence for interventions to help persons suffering from co-morbidities like TB and HIV.


[1].   World Health Organization (2015). The end TB strategy. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2015. Retrieved from icon.

[2].   Ofoegbu, O.S. & Odume, B.B. (2015). Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at National Hospital Abuja Nigeria: a five-year retrospective study. South African Family Practice, 57, 1

[3].   Ifebunandu, N.A. & Ukwaja, K.N. (2012). Tuberculosis treatment default in a large tertiary care hospital in urban Nigeria: prevalence, trend, timing and predictors. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 5, 340–345.

[4].   Glynn, J. R., Murray, J, Bester, A., Nelson, G., Shearer, S., Sonnenberg, P. (2010). High rates of recurrence in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with tuberculosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201, 704–711.

[5].   Getahun, H., Gunneberg, C., Granich, R. & Nunn, P. (2010). HIV infection-associated tuberculosis: the epidemiology and the response. Clinical Infectious Disease, 50(3), 201–207.

[6].   World Health Organization (2018). Latent TB infection updated and consolidated guidelines for programmatic management. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2018. Retrieved from icon

[7].   Bruchfeld, J., Correia-Neves, M., & Källenius, G. (2015). Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 5(7), 017871.

[8].   Castelnuovo, B.A. (2010). Review of compliance to anti tuberculosis treatment and risk factors for defaulting treatment in Sub Saharan Africa. African Health Sciences, 10, 320–324.

[9].   Dooley, K.E, Lahlou, O., Ghali, I., Knudsen, J., Elmessaoudi, D., Cherkaoui, I., Aouad, R. E. (2011) Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco. BMC Public Health, 11, 140.

[10].  Fang, X. H., Dan, Y. L., Liu, J., Jun, L., Zhang, Z. P., Kan, X. H. & Wu, G. C. (2019). Factors influencing completion of treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Patient Preference and Adherence, 13, 491–496.

[11].  Getahun, B., Ameni, G., Medhin, G. & Biadgilign, S. (2013). Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients under directly observed treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Brazillian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17, 521–8.

[12].  Edginton, M. E., Satane, C. S. & Goldstein, S.J. (2012). Patients' beliefs: Do they affect tuberculosis control? A study in a rural district of South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 6(12), 1075-82.

[13].  Nuwaha, F. (2010). High compliance in an ambulatory tuberculosis treatment programme in a rural community of Uganda. International Journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, 3(1), 79-81.

[14].  Kebede, A. & Tajure, W. N. (2012). Medication adherence and its determinants among patients on concomitant tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy in south west Ethiopia. New American Journal of Medical Science, 4, 67–71.

[15].  Gebremariam, M. K., Bjune, G. A., Frich, J. C. (2010). Barriers and facilitators of adherence to TB treatment in patients on concomitant TB and HIV treatment: A qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 10, 651.

[16].  Mekonnen, D., Derbie, A., Desalegn, E. (2015). TB/HIV co-infections and associated factors among patients on directly observed treatment short course in Northeastern Ethiopia: a 4-year retrospective study. BMC Research Notes, 8, 666-674.

[17].  Muñoz-Sellart, M., Cuevas, L., Tumato, M., Merid, Y. & Yassin, M. (2010). Factors associated with poor tuberculosis treatment outcome in the Southern Region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Diseases, 14, 973–979.

[18].  Ngamvithayapong, J., Winkvist, A. & Diwan, V. (2010). High AIDS awareness may cause tuberculosis patient delay: Results from an HIV epidemic area, Thailand. AIDS, 14(10), 1413-1419.

[19].  Kaona, F. A., Tuba, M., Siziva, S. & Sikaona, L. (2014). An assessment of factors contributing to treatment adherence and knowledge of TB transmission among patients on TB treatment. BMC Public Health, 29(4), 68.

[20].  Liam, C. K., Lim, K.H., Wong, C. M. & Tang, B.G. (2011). Attitudes and knowledge of newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients regarding the disease, and factors affecting treatment compliance. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 3(4), 300-309.