Risk Factors Linked with Preeclampsia: A Review

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.11.02.Art004

Authors : Godwin Chukwuemeka Amarikwa-Obi


Preeclampsia is a condition that affects pregnant women and is characterized by high blood pressure, protein in the urine, and swelling in the hands, feet, and legs. There is a chance for mild to significant variances. Although it can happen earlier or immediately after delivery, it usually happens in the later stages of pregnancy. Indeed, search engines like Google, Microsoft Bing, and Baidu were used to search publications investigating the association between pre-eclampsia and risk factor. It was observed that if preeclampsia occurred during a prior pregnancy, a woman is seven times more likely to suffer it again. Primarily, initial pregnancies are affected. Preeclampsia is more likely to affect women with history of migraines, gestational diabetes, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, urinary tract infections, gum disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and sickle cell disease. Additionally, it happens more commonly in pregnancies brought on by egg donation, in vitro fertilization, or donor insemination. It is recommended that high-risk pregnant women begin taking low-dose aspirin after 12 weeks to prevent preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is therefore x-rayed along with its signs and causes. There are several risk indicators that, alone or in combination, may help identify early pregnant women who are “high risk” for pre-eclampsia.

Keywords: High blood pressure, Preeclampsia, Risk factors.


[1] Leshargie CT (2020) Incidence and Predictors of Pre-Eclampsia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: Prospective Cohort Study. Int J Women’s Health. 10;12:1013-1021.

[2] Frank IO, Michael JM, Jenny R, Joseph O. (2020) Prevalence and risk factors for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Northern Tanzania. J Public Hal Epidemiol.12(2):78–85.

[3] Mrema D., Lie R.T., Ostbye T., Mahande M.J., Daltveit A.K. (2018). The association between pre pregnancy body mass index and risk of preeclampsia: a registry-based study from Tanzania. BioMed Central Pregnancy Childbirth, 18(1):56.

[4] Keating BJ, Saxena R. (2021) Risk of pre-eclampsia in patients with a maternal genetic predisposition to common medical conditions: a case-control study. BJOG. ;128(1):55-65.

[5] Amaral LM, Wallace K, Owens M, LaMarca B (2017). Pathophysiology and Current Clinical Management of Preeclampsia. Curr Hypertens Rep. 19(8):616.

[6] Nnodim, J., Emmanuel, N., Hope, O., Nwadike, C., Ukamaka, E., Christian, O. (2017). Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri. Universa Medicina, 36(2), 88–93.

[7] Stevens W, Shih T, Incerti D, Ton TGN, Lee HC, Peneva D, (2017) Short-term costs of preeclampsia to the United States health care system. Am J Obstet Gynecol. ;217(3):237–248.e16.

[8] Tessema G.A., Tekeste A., Ayele T.A. (2015). Preeclampsia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dessie referral hospital, Northeast Ethiopia: a hospital-based study. BioMed Central Pregnancy Childbirth, 15(1):73–75.

[9] Bartsch E, Medcalf KE, Park AL, Ray JG (2016); High Risk of Pre-eclampsia Identification Group. Clinical risk factors for pre-eclampsia determined in early pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis of large cohort studies. BMJ. 19;353:1753.

[10] Dusse LM, Alpoim PN, Silva JT, Rios DR, Brandão AH, Cabral AC (2015). Revisiting HELLP syndrome. Clin Chim Acta. Dec 7;451(Pt B):117-20.

[11] Nguefack C.T., Ako M.A., Dzudie A.T., Nana T.N., Tolefack P.N., Mboudou E. (2018). Comparison of materno-fetal predictors and short-term outcomes between early and late onset pre-eclampsia in the low-income setting of Douala, Cameroon. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 142(2):228–34.

[12] Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A, Tunçalp Ö, Moller AB, Daniels J, (2014) Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. The Lancet Global Health. 2014;2(6): e323.

[13] Shah A, Fawole B, M’Imunya JM (2009) Cesarean delivery outcomes from the WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health in Africa, International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 107, (3):191–197

[14] Fong FM, Sahemey MK, Hamedi G, Eyitayo R, Yates D, Kuan V, Thangaratinam S, Walton RT (2014). Maternal genotype and severe preeclampsia: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 15;180(4):335-45.

[15] Sanchez, S. E., Qiu, C., Williams, M. A., Lam, N., and Sorensen, T. K. (2008). Headaches and migraines are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia in Peruvian women. American Journal of Hypertension, 21(3), 360–364.

[16] Brew O, Sullivan MH, Woodman A (2016). Comparison of Normal and Pre-Eclamptic Placental Gene Expression: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 25;11(8): e0161504. August P. (2013) Preeclampsia: a “nephrocentric” view. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis.;20(3):280-6.

[17] Duley, L. (2009). The global impact of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Seminars in Perinatology, 33(3), 130–137.

[18] Siddiqui A, Deneux-Tharaux C, Luton D, Schmitz T, Mandelbrot L, Estellat C (2020) Maternal obesity and severe pre-eclampsia among immigrant women: a mediation analysis. Sci Rep.;10(1):1–9.

[19] Lin SY, Yang YC, Su JW, Wang JS, Jiang CC, Hsu CY, Kao CH. (2021) Association Between Preeclampsia Risk and Fine Air Pollutants and Acidic Gases: A Cohort Analysis in Taiwan.Front Public Health. 31;9:617521

[20] Skarstein Kolberg E. (2020) ACE2, COVID19 and serum ACE as a possible biomarker to predict severity of disease. J Clin Virol.;126:104350–104350

[21] Staun-Ram E, Goldman S, Gabarin D, Shalev E (2004). Expression and importance of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) in human trophoblast invasion. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2: 59.

[22] August P. (2013) Preeclampsia: a “nephrocentric” view. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis.;20(3):280-6.

[23] World Health Organisation’ (2011). WHO recommendations for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Available at: https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/9789241548335/en/ (Accessed: 8 January 2021).

[24] Musa J., Mohammed C., Ocheke A., Kahansim M., Pam V., Daru P. (2018). Incidence and risk factors for pre-eclampsia in Jos Nigeria. African Health Sciences, 18(3):584–95.

[25] Verma S, Carter EB, Mysorekar IU. (2020). SARS-CoV2 and pregnancy: an invisible enemy? Am J Reprod Immunol. 2020;84(5): e13308–e13308.

[26] Schroeder B.M. (2002). ACOG practice bulletin on diagnosing and managing preeclampsia and eclampsia. American Family Physician, 66(2):330–331.