Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ru-doped Mn3O4 Nanoflowers for Biomedical Applications

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.SE.24.01.Art005

Authors : Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, Hooriyah Laiq Ahmed Khan, Pitchaimani Veerakumar


Ruthenium-doped manganese oxide nanoflowers (denoted as Ru-Mn3O4 NFs) were synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MW-HT) method. The prepared NFs were evaluated for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and hemolytic assays. Because of their unique physicochemical features, low cytotoxicity, excellent stability, exceptional antibacterial action, and significant interest in biomedical field. Various analytical techniques were used to assess the related phase constitution, elemental content, and surface morphology. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) micrographs revealed that the Ru-Mn3O4 NFs had a tetragonal phase with a nanoflowers-like shape and Ru mainly existed as the metallic state. It has been found that Ru-Mn3O4 NFs hold higher microbial activities against various pathogens, making them ideal options for fighting bacterial infections.


[1] Beknalkar, S. A., Teli, A. M., Bhat, T. S., Pawar, K. K., Patil, S. S., Harale, N. S., Shin, J. C., Patil, P. S., 2022, Mn3O4 based materials for electrochemical supercapacitors: Basic principles, charge storage mechanism, progress, and perspectives. Journal of Materials Science & Technology 130, 227-248.

[2] Jain, P., Jangid, A.K., Kulhari, D.P. and Kulhari, H., 2024, Designing of manganese-based nanomaterials for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 12, 577-608.

[3] Ding, B., Zheng, P., Ma, P. A., Lin, J., 2020, Manganese oxide nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, and theranostic applications. Advanced Materials, 32, 1905823.

[4] Spiro, T. G, Bargar, J. R, Sposito, G., Tebo, B. M., 2010, Bacteriogenic manganese oxides. Accounts of Chemical Research., 43, 2-9.

[5] Sukhdev, A., Challa, M., Narayani, L., Manjunatha, A. S., Deepthi, P. R., Angadi, J. V., Kumar, P. M., Pasha, M., 2020, Synthesis, phase transformation, and morphology of hausmannite Mn3O4 nanoparticles: photocatalytic and antibacterial investigations. Heliyon, 6, e03245.

[6] Shaik, M. R., Syed, R., Adil, S. F., Kuniyil, M., Khan, M., Alqahtani, M. S., Shaik, J. P., Siddiqui, M. R. H., Al-Warthan, A., Sharaf, M. A., Abdelgawad, A., 2021, Mn3O4 nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and their antimicrobial and anticancer activity against A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28, 1196-1202.

[7] Bhattacharya, P., Swain, S., Giri, L., Neogi, S., 2019, Fabrication of magnesium oxide nanoparticles by solvent alteration and their bactericidal applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 7, 4141–4152.

[8] Hoseinpour, V., Ghaemi, N., 2018, Green synthesis of manganese nanoparticles: Applications and future perspective—A review. Journal of Photochemistry Photobiology B Biology, 189, 234–243.

[9] Yadav, P., Bhaduri, A., Thakur, A., 2023, Manganese oxide nanoparticles: An insight into structure, synthesis and applications. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Reviews 10, 510-528.

[10] Perachiselvi, M., Bagavathy, M. S., Samraj, J. J., Pushpalaksmi, E., Annadurai, G., 2020, Synthesis and characterization of Mn3O4 nanoparticles for biological studies. Applied Ecology Environmental Science, 8, 273-277.

[11] Gupta, P. K., Mishra, L., 2020, Ecofriendly ruthenium-containing nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, electrochemistry, bioactivity and catalysis. Nanoscale Advances, 2,1774-1791.

[12] Gopinath, K., Karthika, V., Gowri, S., Senthilkumar, V., Kumaresan, S. and Arumugam, A., 2014, Antibacterial activity of ruthenium nanoparticles synthesized using Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract. Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 4, 1-6.

[13] Anjum, S. M., Riazunnisa, K., 2022. Fine ultra-small ruthenium oxide nanoparticle synthesis by using Catharanthus roseus and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and their efficacy towards in vitro assays, antimicrobial activity and catalytic: adsorption kinetic studies using methylene blue dye. Journal of Cluster Science, 33, 1103–1117.

[14] Pradeep, V., Veerakumar, P., Veeraraghavan, V. P. 2024, Facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of copper oxide nanoneedle arrays for practical biomedical applications. Cureus, 16, e51678.

[15] Khan, S., Ansari, A. A., Khan, A. A., Abdulla, M., Al-Obeed, O., Ahmad, R., 2016, In vitro evaluation of anticancer and biological activities of synthesized manganese oxide nanoparticles. Medicinal Chemistry Communications, 7, 1647-1653.

[16] Pandiyan, I., Sri, S. D., Indiran, M. A., Rathinavelu, P. K., Prabakar, J., Rajeshkumar, S., 2022, Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity of Thymus vulgaris-mediated selenium nanoparticles: An in vitro study. Journal of Conservative Dentistry, 25, 241.

[17] Adeyemi, J. O., Onwudiwe, D. C., Oyedeji, A.O., 2022, In vitro α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition and anti-inflammatory studies of Mn3O4 nanoparticles mediated using extract of Dalbergiella welwitschia. Results in Chemistry, 4, 100497.

[18] Liu, X., Chen, Z., Sun, H., Chen, L., Peng, Z. and Liu, Z., Investigation on Mn3O4 coated Ru nanoparticles for partial hydrogenation of benzene towards cyclohexene production using ZnSO4, MnSO4 and FeSO4 as reaction additives. Nanomaterials, 2020, 10: 809.

[19] Perachiselvi, M., Bagavathy, M. S., Samraj, J. J., Pushpalaksmi, E., Annadurai, G., 2020, Synthesis and characterization of Mn3O4 nanoparticles for biological studies. Applied Ecololgy Environmental Sciences, 8, 273-277.

[20] Rajeshkumar, S., Lakshmi, T., Tharani, M., 2021, Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles synthesized using black tea and its antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. International Journal of Dentistry Oral Science 8, 4156-4159.

[21] Nasim, I., Kumar, S. R., Vishnupriya, V. Jabin, Z., 2020, Cytotoxicity and anti-microbial analysis of silver and graphene oxide bio nanoparticles. Bioinformation, 16, 831.

[22] Rajeshkumar, S., Sandhiya, D., 2020, Biomedical applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using eco-friendly method. Nanoparticles and their biomedical applications, pp-65-93.

[23] Agarwal, H., Nakara, A., Shanmugam, V. K., 2019, Anti-inflammatory mechanism of various metal and metal oxide nanoparticles synthesized using plant extracts: A review. Biomedical Pharmacotherpy, 109, 2561–2572.

[24] Nasim, I., Rajeshkumar, S. and Vishnupriya, V., 2021, Green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles, its characterization and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens. International Journal of Dentistry Oral Science, 8, 1670-1675.

[25] Ibrahim, A., Hammadi, M., 2023, Green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles using chia seeds extract, characterization, and cytotoxicity on the HL-60 cells. History of Medicine, 9, 1537-1542.

[26] Nasim, I., Jabin, Z., Kumar, S. R., Vishnupriya, V., 2022, Green synthesis of calcium hydroxide-coated silver nanoparticles using Andrographis paniculata and Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts: An antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Journal Conservation Dentistry 25, 369.

[27] Prasad, A.S. Green synthesis of nanocrystalline manganese (II,III) oxide, 2017, Material Sciences. Semiconductor Process. 71, 342–347.

[28] Sharma, J. K., Srivastava, P., Ameen, S., Akhtar, M. S., Singh, G., Yadava, S., 2016, Azadirachta indica plant-assisted green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles: Excellent thermal catalytic performance and chemical sensing behavior, Journal of Colloid Interface Sciences. 472, 220–228.

[29] Pazos-Ortiz, E., Roque-Ruiz, J. H., Hinojos-Márquez, E. A., López-Esparza, J., Donohué-Cornejo, A., Cuevas-González, J. C., Espinosa-Cristóbal, L. F., Reyes-López, S. Y., Dose-dependent antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles on polycaprolactone fibers against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2017. Article ID 4752314.

[30] Kumar, G. S., Venkataramana, B., Reddy, S. A., Maseed, H., Nagireddy, R.R., 2020, Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles by evaluation of pH effect on particle size formation and its antibacterial activity. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 11, 035006.

[31] Navada, K. M., G. K, N., D’Souza, J. N., Kouser, S., D. J, M., 2021, Synthesis, characterization of phyto-functionalized CuO nano photocatalysts for mitigation of textile dyes in waste water purification, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer evaluation. Applied Nanoscience, 11, 1313-1338.

[32] Mohapatra, S., Leelavathi, L., Rajeshkumar, S., Sakthi, D. S., Jayashri, P., 2020, Assessment of cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using clove and cinnamon formulation-an In-vitro study. Journal of Evolution Medical Dental Science, 9, 1859-1865.

[33] Mansi, K., Kumar, R., Narula, D., Pandey, S. K., Kumar, V., Singh, K., 2022, Microwave-induced CuO nanorods: a comparative approach between curcumin, quercetin, and rutin to study their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects against normal skin cells and human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T-47D. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 5, 5762-78. 

[34] Ealla KKR, Veeraraghavan VP, Ravula NR, Durga CS, Ramani P, Sahu V, Poola PK, Patil S, Panta P (2022) Silk Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering: A Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 23:467–477

[35] Patil S, Sujatha G, Varadarajan S, Priya VV (2022) A bibliometric analysis of the published literature related to toothbrush as a source of DNA. World J Dent 13:S87–S95

[36] Ganesan A, Muthukrishnan A, Veeraraghavan V (2021) Effectiveness of Salivary Glucose in Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Contemp Clin Dent 12:294–300

[37] Karthik EVG, Priya V (2021) Gayathri. R, Dhanraj Ganapathy. Health Benefits Of Annona Muricata-A Review. Int J Dentistry Oral Sci 8:2965–2967